The Middle East—Seventh Century The Byzantines. Two Great Empires Byzantine West and Sassanian Persian East Reached an Arrangement with Clans Among the Arabs Ghassanids for the Byzantines Lakkhmids—Iranian. The 6th Century, the Empress Theodora.
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Two Great EmpiresByzantine West and Sassanian Persian EastReached an Arrangement with Clans Among the ArabsGhassanids for the ByzantinesLakkhmids—Iranian
The 6th Century, the Empress Theodora
Byzantine Empire at 600 CEMauriceTitle of AugustusCapitol ConstantinopleReligion ChristianitySenate, ConsulsLaws Based on JustinianLatin the Official LanguageGreek Language of Learning and Business
Fourth and Fifth Centuries Towns Self-governingTown had Councils and Collected TaxesMonumental Baths, Theaters, Colonnaded Streets; Sixth Century All ChangedTowns lost Political and Financial AutonomyGovernors Appointed by Imperial Authority; Civic Revenues ConfiscatedChurches and Monastic Building Built; No Large Scale Civic Buildings
541 CE Bubonic Plague—1/3EarthquakesBeirut Flourishing Intellectual and Legal Center540 Persians Sacked Antioch573 Apamea582 Basra Sacked by GhassanidsByzantines Arrested ChiefAvars and Slavs
Loss of Population and Constant WarsArmy; Recruit Armenians and ArabsEmpire Rural and AgrarianStill Mediterranean TradeTrade Carried on at FairsPilgrimage Centers, Monasteries, and ChurchesNo Trace of Local Self-governmentLost Classical Aspects—End of 6th
Gold showing Maurice
Syria and EgyptLanguage ; Ethnic Identity; Urban Greek Speaking ; Classical CulturalAntioch and Alexandria; Vernacular (Coptic and Aramaic)Village Culture and Pastoral People; No Taste for Urban LifeCoexisted; Decline of Urban WorldAscendancy of Vernacular World
Maurice in consular uniform.
Bulk of Egyptians and Syrians were MonophysitesGovernment was DiophysiteMonophysites Deep Distrust of any Representation of DivinityMonophysite Chruch used VernacularSyriac—Aramaic; Still UsedIn Syria Rural Monasteries Far From the CityGovernment PersecutionGhassanids Money and Refuge for Persecuted
Phocas wearing consular uniform on a coin.
Political ProblemsMaurice and all his Family Murdered, 602 CEAlliance with Persian King Khusrau II ParvezMaurice Helped Khusrau; Secure the FrontierUsurper Phocas Incompetent; Khusrau Launched CampaignTook Antioch (613); Jerusalem (614)Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Anatolian UplandsSoldier killed Phocas ; Heraclius
Gold solidus of Heraclius and his father in consular robes, struck during their revolt against Phocas
Heraculus Retook Lands from Persians628 Heraculus Entered CtesiphonRelic of True Cross Returned to JerusalemLong War Contributed to Urban DeclineLoyaltiesCity Walls and Fortification in Bad ShapeCyrus, Bishop of Phasis, Incompetent and Intolerant622 CE—Muhammad Made Hijra from Mecca to Median628 CE Year Muhammad Made Agreement with Mecca
The assassination of Khosrau II, in a Mughal manuscript of ca 1535, Persian poems are from Ferdowsi's Shahnameh