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Durability - Hazards. Biological/ Physical Hazards. TIMBER. Species Natural durability of heartwood. Weathering Fire Chemical. Design Detailing minimises exposure to hazards. Treatment enhances durability of sapwood. Fungi Termites / borers Marine. Maintenance ensures

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Durability - Hazards

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    1. Durability - Hazards Biological/ Physical Hazards TIMBER Species Natural durability of heartwood Weathering Fire Chemical Design Detailing minimises exposure to hazards Treatment enhances durability of sapwood Fungi Termites / borers Marine Maintenance ensures protection remains functional

    2. Hazards • Anything that may cause deterioration of timber during service • Reduce long-term performance • Can counter the effects of hazards by • Selection of appropriate species (Natural Durability) • Treatment • Detailing to minimize exposure to hazards • Includes weathering, chemicals, fire • No classification for these hazards – use appropriate detailing to minimize hazard impact • Includes fungal, insect, marine organism attack • Can classify according to Hazard Class scale

    3. Physical Hazards • Weathering-degradation due to weather • rain • sunlight • Chemicals -timber performs well relative to steel/concrete • resistant to degradation for pH>2 and pH<10 • softwoods marginally better than hardwoods • Fire -burning • strength during fire • insulation of walls • prevention of spread

    4. Preventable problems Photo: Geoff Boughton Marmion, WA Photo: Geoff Boughton Weathering Kangaroo Point, Qld Photo: Geoff Boughton Plamerston, NT Photo: Geoff Boughton

    5. Biological Hazards • Fungi • Termite/borers • Marine organisms Can classify according to Hazard Class scale

    6. Preventable problems Photo: Geoff Boughton Fungi damage Photo: Geoff Boughton Photo: Geoff Boughton Termite damage Marine borer damage Horticultural Training Centre, Mornington, Tas Photo: Greg Nolan

    7. Hazard Class

    8. Natural Durability (Heartwood) Extractives and growth characteristics affect natural durability of timber species

    9. Long-term Performance of Timber Can match natural durability class with environmental hazard to estimate long-term performance of untreated timber heartwood

    10. Hazard links to Treatment level Treatment levels have classes with same names as the Hazard levels • H1 – lowest level treatment – suitable for H1 hazard environments – indoors, protected • H2 – treated timber suitable for H2 hazard environments –suitable for all internal use • H3 – treated timber suitable for H3 hazard environments –suitable for above ground external use • H4 – treated timber suitable for H4 hazard environments –suitable for use in contact with dry ground • H5 – treated timber suitable for H5 hazard environments –suitable for all in-ground use

    11. H1 indoors, protected, ventilated Aged Care residence, Tapping, WA Photo: Geoff Boughton Wall panels Holybank Forest Centre Lilydale, Tas Photo: Greg Nolan

    12. H2 all internal use, poorly ventilated eg. concealed wall frames and floor timbers

    13. H3 above ground external use Queenscliffe Jetty, Vic. Photo: Greg Nolan Marina residence, SA Photo: Greg Nolan

    14. H4 in contact with dry ground Hardwood walkway, Margaret River, WA Photo: Geoff Boughton Play equipment, Geelong, Vic Photo: Geoff Boughton

    15. H5 all in-ground use, critical, subject to wetting Nanga Camp, Dwellingup, WA Photo: Geoff Boughton Logging bridge, Pemberton, WA Photo: Geoff Boughton pole house, Townsville, Qld Photo: Geoff Boughton

    16. H6 Marine use – prolonged immersion in sea water Bussleton Jetty, WA Photo: Geoff Boughton Bussleton Jetty, WA Photo: Geoff Boughton