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CS105- Module2. Hardware vs. Software. Local Applications. Local applications are programs or software that can be run on a single computer. The computer on which the local application is running does not have to be connected to a computer network such as internet. Examples.

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Local applications
Local Applications

  • Local applications are programs or software that can be run on a single computer.

  • The computer on which the local application is running does not have to be connected to a computer network such as internet.

  • Examples

Examples of local applications
Examples of Local Applications

  • Media Players (Windows Media Player, RealPlayer, Winamp, …)

  • Word Processors(MS Word, Latex, WordPad,…)

  • Graphic, photo and animation applications (PhotoShop, Word Photo Manager, 3D Studio MAX).

  • Calculator

Local applications in business
Local Applications in Business

  • Accounting (Excel, …)

  • Science and Engineering (Mathematica, Math Lab, System R, Weka, … )

  • Medicine ( Computerized Axial Tomography scan )

File type
File Type

  • Broadly classified as either text file or binary file.

  • Text file, the data are organized as characters.

  • Binary file requires specific interpretation of the bits and the application which supports this file knows how to interpret it.

File type1
File Type

  • Usually the file name has two parts: the main name and the file extension. The extension indicates the type of the file.













File operations
File Operations

  • Create a file

  • Delete a file

  • Open a file

  • Close a file

  • Read data from a file

  • Write data to a file

  • Delete contents of a file

  • Rename a file

  • Copy a file

  • Append data to the end of a file


  • Directory is a named collection of files. It is a way to group files so that you can organize them in a logical manner.

  • In Windows methodology a directory is called a folder.

  • Other than files a folder can contain other folders.


  • A sequence of well-defined steps or instructions for doing a task.

  • An algorithm should end (Stop) at some point.

Word processors ms word
Word Processors - MS Word

  • What you see is what you get!

  • Word is a very popular text editing software.

  • Enter and edit the text.

  • Insert and edit images.

  • Arrange page: orientation, border, shade, etc.

  • Use bullets in Word.

  • Check the grammar and spelling of the contents.

  • A basic tutorial for MS word 2007 is available at:


Word processors latex
Word Processors - LaTeX

  • It is not very easy to write mathematical equations in MS Word. A much better alternative is LaTeX.

  • LaTeX is not a WYSIWYG.

  • First we write a .tex file, then we compile it.

  • Example.

  • A basic tutorial for Latex is available at:



  • A spreadsheet is the computer equivalent of a paper ledger sheet used by accountants couple of decades ago.

  • Using ledger sheet a small mistake could have resulted in redoing the whole page again. But we can undo any action.

  • Also the calculation could have been overwhelming. But using spreadsheets, computer will take care of calculations.

What is powerpoint
What is PowerPoint?

  • A complete presentation graphics package.

  • Gives you everything you need to produce a professional-looking presentation.

  • Offers word processing, outlining, drawing, graphing, and presentation management tools.

Graphics processing
Graphics Processing

  • A very simple graphics processing application is the Paint.

  • In a painting program, we decompose an image into a collection of small dots, known as pixels.

  • If you zoom on a picture you will see these dots.