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Unit 4, Part 2. From Every Corner of the Land. Short Stories. Short Story – brief work of fiction No specific length Usually between 500 words and 50 pages Short enough to be read in one “sitting”. Elements of a Short Story. Plot Characters Setting Theme Point of View Tone

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Unit 4, Part 2

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unit 4 part 2

Unit 4, Part 2

From Every Corner of the Land

short stories
Short Stories
  • Short Story – brief work of fiction
    • No specific length
    • Usually between 500 words and 50 pages
    • Short enough to be read in one “sitting”
elements of a short story
Elements of a Short Story
  • Plot
  • Characters
  • Setting
  • Theme
  • Point of View
  • Tone
  • Mood or Atmosphere
  • Symbol
  • Plot – sequence of events that make up a story
    • Conflict – struggle that the main character faces
      • External – character struggles against an outside force
        • Character vs. Character
        • Character vs. Nature
        • Character vs. Society
      • Internal – character struggles with opposing feelings, beliefs, needs, or wants
    • Resolution – resolves the conflict
plot structure
Plot Structure
  • Exposition – introduces the characters, setting, and conflict
  • Rising Action – conflict increases in intensity
  • Climax – Turning point – highest point of tension
  • Falling Action – conflict lessens in intensity
  • Resolution – resolves the conflict
    • Often subtle
    • Sometimes no resolution
  • Characters – the people, animals, or objects who participate in the action of the story
    • Protagonist – the main character
    • Antagonist – the character who is working against the protagonist
  • Characterization – techniques used by writers to develop and reveal a character’s personality
  • Setting – the time and place of the story
    • Can simply be the background for the story
    • Can play a crucial role in the story’s plot or conflict
  • Theme – main idea, central message, or insight revealed by the story
    • Usually implied
    • Reader has to piece together clues from the story
    • Often it is what the protagonist learns or how the character changes as a result of the story
point of view
Point of View
  • Point of view – perspective or vantage point from which a story is told
    • First person – main character is the narrator and uses “I” throughout
    • Third person
      • Limited – main character is outside the story and simply relates the story
      • Omniscient – main character is outside the story, but knows the thoughts and feelings of more than one character; even knows events that have occurred in the past that the characters don’t know
  • Tone – the writer’s attitude towards the characters, the reader, or the subject matter
    • Closely related to the narrator’s voice
    • Cool, detached, compassionate, understanding, etc.
  • Mood or atmosphere – the feeling that the story evokes in a reader
    • Usually depends on the setting
      • Spooky, eerie, oppressive
  • Symbol – person, place, or object that has its own meaning but also stands for something larger than itself
    • Ex. Veil in “The Minister’s Black Veil”
reading strategies
Reading Strategies
  • Identify the conflict
  • Interpret the theme
  • Read passages aloud
author s style
Author’s Style
  • Author’s style – manner in which the author puts ideas into words
    • Syntax – sentence style
    • Word Choice – adjectives?
    • Tone or emotional attitude – events suggesting emotions? Explanations?
  • Theme – message about life that the author seems to impart based on his or her literature
latin prefix in
Latin prefix in-
  • In-
    • A location or direction (in, into, within, on, or toward)
    • A negative (no, not, without)
  • If In- comes before a word that starts with p, we use Im-
  • See Word analysis on page 831
stream of consciousness
Stream of Consciousness
  • Stream of consciousness – follows the not-so-linear thought patterns of humans
    • Presents sequences of thought as if they were coming directly from a character’s mind
    • Leaves our transitional words and phrases found in traditional prose
    • Connects details only through a character’s associations
    • Flashback – interruptions in which an earlier event is described
      • Memory
      • Story told about a character
      • Dream or daydream
      • Switch in time to past
greek prefix dys
Greek Prefix Dys-
  • Difficult or bad
  • Dysfunctional (functional means working properly) = not working properly
  • Dyslexia (lexis means word or speech) = difficulty with words or speech
  • Dysentery (entry means intestine) = disturbance or difficulty with the intestines
  • Dyspepsia (pepsis means digestion) = difficulty with digestion
  • Dystopia (topos means place) – place filled with difficulty
  • Archetype – plot, character, symbol, or idea that recurs in the literature or mythology of many different cultures across the world
    • Hero’s quest – classic quest tales
      • Hero is on a journey to obtain something of great value
      • Hero encounters obstacles that test his or her character
      • Hero overcomes these obstacles, often with the aid of others, and often at great sacrifice
      • Hero receives a boon, or benefit, that is used to help others
      • Hero’s quest symbolizes the larger journey of life
humorous essay
Humorous Essay
  • Humorous essay – short, funny work of literature
    • Hyperbole – exaggeration or outrageous overstatement
    • Understatements – downplaying a dramatic event, or saying less than what is meant
      • Opposite of Hyperbole
    • Idioms – expressions in which the literal meanings of the words do not add up to the actual meaning
      • Ex. “raining cats and dogs”
    • Dialect – ways of speaking that are particular to a region or group
apostrophe and personification
Apostrophe and Personification
  • Apostrophe – literary device in which a speaker directly addresses a thing, concept, or person who is dead or absent
  • Personification – nonhuman subject is given human characteristics
poetry of robert frost
Poetry of Robert Frost
  • Blank Verse – unrhymed iambic pentameter (5 repetitions of unstressed/stressed)
  • Pastorals – poems that deal with rural settings
how to read poetry
How to read poetry

No punctuation – continue to read at the same pace

Comma, dash, or semi-colon – pause before continuing

Period, exclamation point, or question mark – Full stop

latin root lum
Latin Root –lum-
  • -lum- means giving off light
  • Illuminate – giving off light
  • Luminous – glowing
  • Illumination- explanation (shedding light onto something)