CALORIES Definition: The unit of energy necessary to raise 1 Liter of Water 1 ! Caloric Intake/ Expenditure Theorm: When one consumes more calories than they burn, One gains weight. When one burns more calories than they consume, One loses weight.
Metabolism DEFINITION: Rate at which food is Digested/ Calories burned. People with Fast Metabolism- 1. Eat on Regular Basis 2. Monitor their portion sizes 3. Are Well Hydrated 4. Make Exercise a Priority People with Slow Metabolism- 1. Skip Meals 2. Over Eat when they Dine. 3. Lead Sedentary Lifestyles. 4. Often Tired. Note: Metabolism can be affected by the Health of the Thyroid Gland!
Evolution of Nutrition 1980’s 1990’s 2000’s 2010’s
Serving Sizes & Portion Control Can help to modify/ change one’s metabolism Meal Planning: TRADITIONAL/ MILITARISTIC * Three Square Meals a Day Refers to Four Basic Food Groups of the 80’s! * Large Portions/ meal * NO SNACKS (no need for it)! * Food/ Energy is sustained in body for longer periods of time. Calories burnt slower to make up for the time in between meals. * Known as the “Norm” prior to further research of the 90’s on metabolism • HEALTHIER/ MODERN TEACHING • * Six small meals a day • Three meals & three snacks • * Eating every 2-3 hours • * Beginning every meal with a • Glass of Water. • * Consuming Smaller Portion • sizes • *Re-training one’s body to • EXPECT the next meal & • following through. • * Makes Metabolism Faster– • Burn ALL calories before • next meal—“Use as you go!”
NUTRIENTS What Our Bodies Need!
BENEFITS of H2O • Prevents loss of memory • as you age • Dehydration taxes the heart • by causing it to pump faster • to get sufficient oxygen to • your muscles • Water is essential for the • body to sweat & release • toxins • Cleanses toxic waste from • various parts of the body • & carries it to the liver & • kidneys for removal • Lubricates joints & lessens • discomfort from Arthritis • or back pain • Slows down the aging • process and makes skin • Smooth • 75% of Americans are chronically dehydrated • Lessens addictive urges including caffeine, alcohol, and certain drugs • Water allows for efficient cell repair • Allows red blood cells to carry oxygen more efficiently, resulting in better muscular function & increased mental activity • Without the flow of water there’s insufficient water to remove waste & toxins through your stool • A University of Washington study discovered that one glass of water stopped hunger pangs for almost • 100% of studied dieters
PROTEINS • Important Facts: • *grows, builds and repairs tissues • *regulates body processes • *supplies energy • *maintains strength • *aids body in resistance to infection • *1 gram protein = 4 calories • *excess consumption results in stored fat
PROTEINS About the Nutrient: • Body needs 20 Amino Acids to survive. • + Bodyonly creates 11 Amino Acids onits own. • The 9 Amino Acids that the body does NOT generateMUSTcome from outside sources! -Or-
PROTEINS • Complete ProteinsIncomplete Proteins • *contain all 9 aminoacids *do not contain all 9 amino acids • *found in meat products *categorized under three headings • and by-products:grains- pastas, corn, whole grains • *ex. -Butter, legumes- beans, peas, lentils • -Milk, nuts & seeds- cashews, peanuts, • -Yogurt, sunflower seeds • -Pork Rinds *must pair two or more together to create a • ‘complete protein’ • *ex. -Red beans & Rice, • -Peanut butter crackers, • -RefriedBeans on Corn Chips, • -Hummus & Pita
CARBOHYDRATES • Important Facts: • *main source of energy • *includes sugar, starch and fiber • *any word with the suffix “ose” = sugar • (i.e. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, dextrose, etc.) • *1 gram Carbohydrate = 4 calories • *excess consumptionresults in stored fat.
CARBOHYDRATES About the Nutrient: • *Two Divisions of Carbohydrates: Simple and Complex • *Complex Carbs are better for you. • The Body needs to work harder/ expend energy to digest • Complex Carbohydrates. • *SimpleCarbohydates have already been broken down/ milled/ over- processed for you. Your body does not need to burn any energy • to mechanically break Simple Carbs down. • *Anything made with White Flour is considered to be Simple.When Flour • is harvested and milled, it is brown in color. It turns white from • the loss of nutrients as it is processed and refined. • *The Body changes carbs into blood sugar (glucose). That which the body needs, it uses. Excess glucose is then converted into storedfat (glycogen)—found in muscles. The bodywill change glycogen back into blood sugar when body needs more energy!
CARBOHYDRATES • Simple CarbohydratesComplex Carbohydrates • *sugar/ white flour *starches and fiber • *already broken down *body must work/ expend • for you through process energy to break down and • of refinementdigest food • *sweets, goodies, white flour *Potatoes, Rice, Corn
FATS Important Facts: • *provides energy • *protects and cushions internal organs • *contributes to taste and texture of food • *maintains body heat • *provides an energy reserve • *aides in brain, nerve, and eye development • *1 gram of Fat = 9 calories
FATS About the Nutrient: Two main divisions of Fat: Saturated /Unsaturated *Saturated Fat is Animal Fat, “grizzle” *Saturated Fat contains cholesterol, the substance that collects in one’s arteries and can clog blood flow. *Cholesterol is made up of HDL (High Density Lipoproteins = GOOD for your liver) & LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins= BAD for your heart). *Unsaturated Fat is extracted from Plants. Better for you than Saturated Fat. *Hydrogenation is the process by which Hydrogen Atoms are chemically added to alter an unsaturated fat resulting in Hydrogenated Oil and Transfat *Transfatis bad for you although its benefits include: - increasing shelf life of food, - is less greasy. *Monounsaturated Oils are better for you than Polyunsaturated Oils
FATS SaturatedUnsaturated *solid at room temp *liquid at room temp *meat products *plant & fish products *cholesterol MONOPOLY *Olive, Canola *Corn, Veggie (both directly related to # H Atoms)
VITAMINS Important Facts: * Compounds that help regulate vital body processes, including the Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism of other Nutrients. * Vitamins are MICRONUTRIENTS * Helps the body use Carbohydrates, Proteins, & Fats * Vitamins do not supply calories. * Vitamins speed up reactions that PRODUCE energy in the body cells. * Only ONE (1) Vitamin is manufactured by the body: Vitamin D
VITAMINS About the Nutrient: * Different Vitamins regulate different processes * Sub- Catagorized as Fat- Soluable & Water Soluable * Fat- Soluable Vitamins: A, D, E, K -Dissolves in Fat -Can be Toxic if consumed in great quantities. * Water-Soluable Vitamins: C, B complex -Dissolves in Water - Cannot be stored in the body in significant amounts.
VITAMINS FAT- SOLUABLE: Vitamin A: Maintains Skin. Strengthens Tooth enamel. Promotes use of Calcium in Bone Growth. Keeps Eyes moist. Helps Eyes Adjust to Darkness. *Sources= Milk/ dairy products, Greens, Carrots, Deep-Orange Fruits, Liver Vitamin D: Promotes use of Calcium & Phosphorus. Essential for Bone & Tooth Formation. *Sources=Milk, Eggs, Dairy, Salmon, Beef, Sardines, Margarine Vitamin E: Transports O2 through Blood, Relates to Longevity, protects against RBC destruction. *Sources= Veggie Oils, Nuts, Seeds, Legumes, Wheat Germ Vitamin K: Blood Clotting. Regulates Blood Calcium Levels *Sources= Spinach, Broccoli, Eggs, Liver, Cabbage, Tomatoes WATER- SOLUABLE: Vitamin C: Protects against Infection. Helps with formation of connective tissue. Helps Wounds heal. Maintains elasticity & strength of blood vessels. Promotes health teeth & gums. *Sources= Citrus Fruits, Cantaloupe, Tomatoes, Cabbage, Broccoli, Potatoes, Peppers Vitamin B complex: (Thiamine, Roboflavin, Niacin, B6, Folic Acid, B12, Pantothenic Acid) Changes Glucose into Energy/ Fat. AA & Carb metabolism. Production of DNA. *Sources= Grains, Nuts, Legumes, Animal Products, Green Vegetables
MINERALS Important Facts: * Inorganic Substances that the body cannot manufacture energy but acts as Catalysts (substances that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing any permanent chemical change itself) * Minerals are naturally occuring inorganic substances. * Regulates many vital body processes. * Minerals are MICRONUTRIENTS. *Sub-Catagorized as TRACE Minerals & MACRO Minerals. * Minerals are found on the Periodic Chart (Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Zinc,Calcium, Sodium, Phosphorus) * Every Mineral has its own unique function in Health.
MINERALS About the Nutrient: TRACE Minerals: Necessary in very small amounts: Iron– Aids RBC in transporting Oxygen (anemia) Zinc– Necessary for digesting enzymes & healing wounds Copper– Necessary for production of hemoglobin in RBCs Iodine– Necessary for production of Thyroid gland hormones Manganese– Aids in synthesis of Cholesterol & normal function of Nerve tissue MACRO Minerals: Required in amounts of Greater than 100 mg: Calcium– builds up bones & teeth Magnesium– aids in metabolism Phosphorus– builds bones, teeth & cells Potassium– keeps fluids balanced within cells Sodium– necessary for water balance in cells and tissues , & nerve cell conduction Sulfur– builds hair, nails, and skin
MINERALS MACRO-MINERALS: TRACE- MINERALS: SOURCES— Milk, Cheese, Legumes, Soybean Products, Green Leafy Vegetables Whole Grains, Beans, Nuts, Seeds, Fruit, Meats, Poultry, TableSalt, Crackers, Eggs, Brown Sugar SOURCES— Red Meat, Liver, Seafood, Poultry, Nuts, Legumes, Iodized Salt, Milk, Cheese, Fish, Whole-Grain Cereals, Breads, Eggs, Green Leafy Vegetables, Fruits, Milk, Eggs, Breads
SUPPLEMENTS: * Definition:“INSTEAD OF” Different types (most popular): Herbal & Protein Supplements * Herbal Supplements: Contains extracts or ingredients from the roots, stems, leaves, buds or flowers of plants. Comes in different forms–tablets, capsules, powders, gelcaps, & liquids * NOT TESTED or REGULATED BY FDA (Food & Drug Admin.) * Often Causes Body to DECREASE its productivity of hormones that regulate its Natural Release.
Healthy Habits: * Caloric Intake * Metabolism * Lifestyle -Sedentary v. Active * Balanced Meals * Portion Control * # of servings/ day * Calories/ Serving/ Pkg. * FDA/ USDA * Food Labels Nutrients: * Water * Proteins - Complete vs. Incomplete * Carbohydrates - Simple vs. Complex * Fats - Saturated vs. Unsaturated * Vitamins - Fat Sol. vs. Water Sol. * Minerals - Trace vs. Macro * Supplements