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Artificial IntelligenceCourse outline

- Introduction
- Problem solving
- Generic algorithms
- Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
- Expert Systems
- Uncertainty
- Learning
- Planning
- Advanced topics in AI

CIIT Sahiwal

Problem Solving

- The mechanism to find the goal performing some actions to transit from one state to another is known as problem solving.
- Initial state
- Operator: description of an action
- State space: all states reachable from the initial state by any sequence action
- Path: sequence of actions leading from one state to another
- Goal test: which the agent can apply to a single state description to determine if it is a goal state
- Path cost function: assign a cost to a path which the sum of the costs of the individual actions along the path.

CIIT Sahiwal

Different types of problem

- Well structured problems
- When problem description and its rules are described clearly and unambiguously.
- Ill structured problem

No extra information about the problem other than the definition

- No extra information
- No heuristics (rules)

CIIT Sahiwal

Well Defined Problems

- Finding the maximum from a sequence of integers.
- Eight puzzle
- 1,2 or 2,1 puzzle
- Farmer and goose problem
- Water pouring problem

CIIT Sahiwal

Eight puzzle

CIIT Sahiwal

Water Pouring Problem

CIIT Sahiwal

Farmer and goose problem

W F

~ W

F G

F W F G ~ G F ~

W C W C C ~ G F

G ~ C F ~ W

C F ~ C F W W G

~ G G ~ G C CC

F C

W ~

G W

CIIT Sahiwal

Searching For Solutions

- Having formulated some problems…how do we solve them?
- Search through a state space
- Use a search tree that is generated with an initial state and successor functions that define the state space

CIIT Sahiwal

Different search techniques

- Uninformed Search

Only the information available in the problem definition

- Also known as blind searching

-Breadth-first search

-Depth-first search

-Depth-limited search

-Iterative deepening search

- Informed Search

When sufficient information is provided to reach the goal.

CIIT Sahiwal

Breadth-First Search

- Recall from Data Structures the basic algorithm for a breadth-first search on a graph or tree
- Expand the shallowest unexpanded node
- Place all new successors at the end of a FIFO queue

CIIT Sahiwal

Breadth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Breadth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Breadth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Breadth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

- Recall from Data Structures the basic algorithm for a depth-first search on a graph or tree
- Expand the deepest unexpanded node
- Unexplored successors are placed on a stack until fully explored

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

Depth-First Search

CIIT Sahiwal

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