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Tools for Measuring Aspects of Student Behavior Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org. Student Behavioral Assessment: Varied Sources, Multiple Settings (Gresham, 1983). Student behavioral data used for progress-monitoring should come from different sources and across multiple settings to:

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tools for measuring aspects of student behavior jim wright www interventioncentral org

Tools for Measuring Aspects of Student BehaviorJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org

student behavioral assessment varied sources multiple settings gresham 1983
Student Behavioral Assessment: Varied Sources, Multiple Settings (Gresham, 1983)

Student behavioral data used for progress-monitoring should come from different sources and across multiple settings to:

  • Track all areas of concern (e.g., academic behaviors; social behaviors; attendance).
  • Control for potential bias from any one source.
  • Collect data of maximal relevance to the student’s educational program.
  • Increase the probability of correctly identifying the underlying ‘driver(s)’ of the student’s problem behavior(s).
  • Reduce the workload on any one person, as multiple staff members can help to collect strands of data.

Source: Gresham, F. M. (1983). Multitrait-multimethod approach to multifactored assessment: Theoretical rationale and practical application. School Psychology Review, 12, 26-34.

slide11

Tom Smith

5

07-08

Chris Pollman

3/4

3/9

3/15

3/18

3/19

3/23

3-4 10:15 10:30 15 77% Math lesson; small grp

3-9 1:30 1:45 15 65% Indep seatwork

3-15 9:05 9:20 15 70% Reading grp

3-18 10:20 10:35 15 55% Math lesson; small grp

3-19 9:05 9:20 15 70% Reading grp

Student On-Task Observation Summary Formp. 13

3-23 1:30 1:45 15 72% Indep seatwork

slide14

X

Math

X

Reading

X

X

X

Science

Behavioral Scatterplotp. 16

Step 2: Superimpose the student’s school schedule over the scatterplot. Look for significant patterns between location/activity and PRESENCE or ABSENCE of student behaviors.

Step 1: Plot Teacher Behavior Log Data onto Scatterplot. (In example, ‘X’ represents student refusal to comply with teacher request.)

schoolwork motivation assessment p 6
Schoolwork Motivation Assessmentp. 6

Sources: Witt, J., & Beck, R. (1999). One minure academic functional assessment andinterventions: "Can't" do it…or "won't" do it? Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gilbertson, D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral interventions: A systematic process for finding and eliminating problems. School Psychology Review, 33, 363-381.

schoolwork motivation assessment
Schoolwork Motivation Assessment
  • Step 1: Assemble an incentive menu
  • Step 2: Create two versions of a timed worksheet
  • Step 3: Administer the first timed worksheet to the student WITHOUT incentives.
  • Step 4: Compute an improvement goal.
  • 5: Have the student select an incentive for improved performance.
  • Step 6: Administer the second timed worksheet to the student WITH incentives.
  • Step 7: Interpret the results of the academic motivation assessment to select appropriate interventions.
schoolwork motivation assessment1
Schoolwork Motivation Assessment
  • Step 1: Assemble an Incentive menuCreate a 4-5 item menu of modest incentives or rewards that students in the class are most likely to find motivating.
schoolwork motivation assessment2
Schoolwork Motivation Assessment
  • Step 2: Create two versions of a timed worksheetMake up two versions of custom student worksheets. The worksheets should be at the same level of difficulty, but each worksheet should have different items or content to avoid a practice effect. NOTE: If possible, the worksheets should contain standardized short-answer items (e.g., matching vocabulary words to their definitions) to allow you to calculate the student’s rate of work completion.
schoolwork motivation assessment3
Schoolwork Motivation Assessment
  • Step 3: Administer the first timed worksheet to the student WITHOUT incentives. In a quiet, non-distracting location, administer the first worksheet or CBM probe under timed, standardized conditions. Collect the probe or worksheet and score.
schoolwork motivation assessment4
Schoolwork Motivation Assessment
  • Step 4: Compute an improvement goal. After you have scored the first CBM probe or worksheet, compute a ’20 percent improvement goal’. Multiply the student’s score on the worksheet by 1.2. This product represents the student’s minimum goal for improvement.Example: A student who completed 20 correct items on a timed worksheet will have an improvement goal of 24 (20 x 1.2 = 24).
schoolwork motivation assessment5
Schoolwork Motivation Assessment
  • Step 5: Have the student select an incentive for improved performance. Tell the student that if he or she can attain a score on the second worksheet that meets or exceeds your goal for improvement (Step 3), the student can earn an incentive. Show the student the reward menu. Ask the student to select the incentive that he or she will earn if the student makes or exceeds the goal.
schoolwork motivation assessment6
Schoolwork Motivation Assessment
  • Step 6: Administer the second timed worksheet to the student WITH incentives. Give the student the second CBM probe. Collect and score. If the student meets or exceeds the pre-set improvement goal, award the student the incentive.
schoolwork motivation assessment7
Schoolwork Motivation Assessment
  • Step 7: Interpret the results of the academic motivation assessment to select appropriate interventions. ACADEMIC INTERVENTIONS ONLY. If the student fails to meet or exceed the improvement goal, an academic intervention should be selected to teach the appropriate skills or to provide the student with drill and practice opportunities to build fluency in the targeted academic area(s).
schoolwork motivation assessment8
Schoolwork Motivation Assessment
  • Step 7(Cont): Interpret the results of the academic motivation assessment to select appropriate interventions. COMBINED ACADEMIC AND PERFORMANCE INTERVENTIONS. If the student meets or exceeds the improvement goal but continues to function significantly below the level of classmates, an intervention should be tailored that includes strategies to both improve academic performance and to increase the student’s work motivation.
schoolwork motivation assessment9
Schoolwork Motivation Assessment
  • Step 7(Cont): Interpret the results of the academic motivation assessment to select appropriate interventions. PERFORMANCE INTERVENTIONS ONLY. If the student meets or exceeds the improvement goal with an incentive and shows academic skills that fall within the range of ‘typical’ classmates, the intervention should target only student work performance or motivation.
slide28

‘Motivation Assessment in Advanced Subject Areas’ Activity

Brief behavior analysis of motivation (e.g., Schoolwork Motivation Assessment) is most effective for basic skill areas.

In your ‘elbow groups’:

Discuss ways that RTI Teams could collect information about whether motivation is an ‘academic blocker’ on more advanced academic tasks (e.g., writing a term paper) or subject areas (e.g., trigonometry).

daily behavior report cards dbrcs are
Daily Behavior Report Cards (DBRCs) Are…
  • brief forms containing student behavior-rating items. The teacher typically rates the student daily (or even more frequently) on the DBRC. The results can be graphed to document student response to an intervention.
daily behavior report cards can monitor
Daily Behavior Report Cards Can Monitor…
  • Hyperactivity
  • On-Task Behavior (Attention)
  • Work Completion
  • Organization Skills
  • Compliance With Adult Requests
  • Ability to Interact Appropriately With Peers
slide32

Jim Blalock

May 5

Mrs. Williams

Rm 108

Daily Behavior Report Card:

Daily Version

slide33

Jim Blalock

Mrs. Williams

Rm 108

Daily Behavior Report Card:

Weekly Version

05 05 07

05 06 07

05 07 07

05 08 07

05 09 07

40

0

60

60

50

student case scenario jim
Student Case Scenario: Jim

Jim is a 10th-grade student who is failing his math course and in danger of failing English and science courses. Jim has been identified with ADHD. His instructional team meets with the RTI Team and list the following academic and behavioral concerns for Jim.

  • Does not bring work materials to class
  • Fails to write down homework assignments
  • Sometimes does not turn in homework, even when completed
  • Can be non-compliant with teacher requests at times.
extant existing data chafouleas et al 2007
Extant (Existing) Data (Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Definition: Information that is collected by schools as a matter of course.
  • Extant data comes in two forms:
    • Performance summaries (e.g., class grades, teacher summary comments on report cards, state test scores).
    • Student work products (e.g., research papers, math homework, PowerPoint presentation).

Source: Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral assessment: Informing intervention and instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

advantages of using extant data chafouleas et al 2007
Advantages of Using Extant Data (Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Information is already existing and easy to access.
  • Students are less likely to show ‘reactive’ effects when data is collected, as the information collected is part of the normal routine of schools.
  • Extant data is ‘relevant’ to school data consumers (such as classroom teachers, administrators, and members of problem-solving teams).

Source: Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral assessment: Informing intervention and instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

drawbacks of using extant data chafouleas et al 2007
Drawbacks of Using Extant Data (Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Time is required to collate and summarize the data (e.g., summarizing a week’s worth of disciplinary office referrals).
  • The data may be limited and not reveal the full dimension of the student’s presenting problem(s).
  • There is no guarantee that school staff are consistent and accurate in how they collect the data (e.g., grading policies can vary across classrooms; instructors may have differing expectations regarding what types of assignments are given a formal grade; standards may fluctuate across teachers for filling out disciplinary referrals).
  • Little research has been done on the ‘psychometric adequacy’ of extant data sources.

Source: Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral assessment: Informing intervention and instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

why monitor behaviors through academic measures
Why Monitor Behaviors Through Academic Measures?

Academic measures (e.g., grades, CBM data) can be useful as part of the progress-monitoring ‘portfolio’ of data collected on a student because:

  • Students with problem behaviors often struggle academically, so tracking academics as a target is justified in its own right.
  • Improved academic performance generally correlates with reduced behavioral problems.
  • Individualized interventions for misbehaving students frequently contain academic components (as the behavior problems can emerge in response to chronic academic deficits). Academic progress-monitoring data helps the school to track the effectiveness of the academic interventions.
grades other teacher performance summary data chafouleas et al 2007
Grades & Other Teacher Performance Summary Data (Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Teacher test and quiz grades can be useful as a supplemental method for monitoring the impact of student behavioral interventions.
  • Other data about student academic performance (e.g., homework completion, homework grades, etc.) can also be tracked and graphed to judge intervention effectiveness.

Source: Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral assessment: Informing intervention and instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

slide55

2-Wk

9/23/07

4-Wk

10/07/07

6-Wk

10/21/07

8-Wk

11/03/07

10-Wk

11/20/07

12-Wk

12/05/07

Marc Risley

(From Chafouleas et al., 2007)

Source: Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral assessment: Informing intervention and instruction. New York: Guilford Press.