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The Industrial Revolution. Origins-When, Where, Why, and How!. From the roughly 1750-1850 Begins in Britain, spreads through Europe, Asia, and to the United States A turning point-major changes in society and how people lived their lives . 3 Reasons it was Possible .

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origins when where why and how
Origins-When, Where, Why, and How!
  • From the roughly 1750-1850
  • Begins in Britain, spreads through Europe, Asia, and to the United States
  • A turning point-major changes in society and how people lived their lives
3 reasons it was possible
3 Reasons it was Possible
  • a second agricultural revolution.
  • a population explosion.
  • the development of new technology.
the before
The BEFORE
  • Time before the Revolution used what was called the “Domestic System”
    • Domestic means home- home based system
    • Small farming by individual families
      • Subsistence agriculture-survival NOT profit
    • Family involved in the producing:
      • Made their own food, clothes, and tools
how what led to industrialization
How? What led to Industrialization?

The Agricultural Revolution

  • Enclosure movement-
    • fencing off common lands into individual holdings
    • Larger scale faming
  • Experimentation with new techniques-
    • Seed drill: plant seeds into rows
    • crop rotation: alternating the types of crops and areas where you plant
  • Results?
    • Less waste of land
    • More food
    • Less of the labor force was tied to farming
      • Freed up people to work in the factories, move into cities
the population explosion
The Population Explosion

The population boom of the 1700s was due more to declining death rates than to rising birthrates.

  • The agricultural revolution reduced the risk of famine.
  • Because they ate better, women were healthier and had stronger babies.
  • In the 1800s, better hygiene and sanitation, along with improved medical care, further limited deaths from disease.
new technology
New Technology

New sources of energy, along with new materials, enabled business owners to change the way work was done.

AN ENERGY REVOLUTION — During the 1700s, people began to harness new sources of energy.

  • Thomas Newcomen developed a steam engine powered by coal.
  • James Watt improved on the steam engine.

IMPROVED IRON — Coal was used to produce iron, a material needed for construction of machines and steam engines.

  • The Darby family of England developed methods to produce better quality, less expensive iron.
the factory system and mechanization
The Factory System and Mechanization
  • Use of machines to increase production
  • Flow of innovation leads to spinning mill
  • Workers + Machines=Factory System
the birth of factories why britain
The Birth of Factories-Why Britain?

Britain had the basic resources needed for industrialization,

They combined the components of a factory first

  • HUMAN RESOURCES
    • Workers, a large population in need of work
  • NATURAL RESOURCES
    • Access to coal, cotton, iron
  • FINANCIAL RESOURCES
    • Capital- money to invest in factories
  • MARKETS
    • Place to sell goods (colonies)
  • STABLE GOVERNMENT
    • Allowed and encouraged business
  • NEW INVENTIONS
    • Center of technological development
what is a factory
What is a factory?
  • Factories: places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods
  • “The same [amount] of labor is now performed in one of these structures which formerly occupied the industry of an entire district.”
changes in the textile industry
Changes in the Textile Industry

As the demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with a series of remarkable inventions that revolutionized the British textile industry.

The new machines were too large and expensive to be operated at home. Thus, the putting out system was replaced by the first factories, places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods.

The spinning jenny

spun many threads

at the same time.

The waterframe used

water power to speed

up spinning still further.

The flying shuttle

allowed weaves to

work much faster.

the cotton cycle and slavery
The Cotton Cycle and Slavery -

British Cotton Trade about 1850

revolution in transportation
Revolution in Transportation

As production increased, entrepreneurs needed faster and cheaper methods of moving goods from place to place.

Turnpikes, or toll roads, canals, stronger bridges, and upgraded harbors all helped to improve transportation.

The invention of the steam locomotive made possible the growth of railroads.

Robert Fulton used the steam engine to power the first steamboat.

capitalism and laissez faire economics
Capitalism and Laissez-Faire Economics
  • As the industrial revolution took hold, a brand new economic system developed: CAPITALISM
    • Father of Capitalism is Adam Smith, he wrote the “bible of capitalism” called The Wealth of Nations in 1776
  • Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo all believed in LAISSEZ-FAIRE: no government control/regulation of economy
    • There should be zero government role in economics, even if that meant allowing for child labor and worker exploitation
  • All prices and wages would be determined by competition in the FREE MARKET
the ugly side of capitalism
The Ugly Side of Capitalism
  • While capitalism rewards hard work, with workers being motivated by profit, this motivator breeds GREED.
  • Capitalists argue that there should be classes, some rich, some middle, some poor-it was necessary for the system
    • The idea that the class system was inevitable was known as SOCIAL DARWINISM: only the strong will survive, the poor are poor for a reason-its their own fault
  • As problems mounted and factory life worsened many began to criticize capitalism and wanted to government to step in to fix the problems of the industrial revolution
communism as an alternative
Communism as an Alternative
  • Father of Communism is Karl Marx, he wrote The Communist Manifesto in 1848 with Friedrich Engles
    • Communism calls for the complete and total control of the economy and business activity
  • According to the Communist Manifesto, the “proletariat” (workers) would rise up in revolution against greedy Capitalists
utilitarianism and socialism
Utilitarianism and Socialism
  • UTILITARIANISM
  • The idea that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizens.
  • Jeremy Bentham supported individual freedom, but saw the need for government involvement under certain circumstances.
  • John Stuart Mill wanted the government to step in to improve the hard lives of the working class.
  • SOCIALISM
  • The people as a whole, rather than private individuals, own and operate the means of production.
  • The Utopians wanted to build self-sufficient communities in which all work was shared and all property owned in common.
  • Robert Owen set up a model community in Scotland and put Utopian ideas into practice.