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Section IV Courts and Corrections: Law Enforcement’s Partners in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 13 U.S. Courts. The Court System: A Brief Overview. Jurisdiction: a geographic area and a court’s authority to try a case or hear an appeal
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Section IVCourts and Corrections: Law Enforcement’s Partners in the Criminal Justice System Chapter 13 U.S. Courts
The Court System: A Brief Overview Jurisdiction: a geographic area and a court’s authority to try a case or hear an appeal Original Jurisdiction: acourt with the authority to try cases Appellate Jurisdiction: acourt with the authority to hear an appeal to set aside a conviction Adjudication: the process of judicially deciding a legal case
Hmmmmmmmmm! Preliminary In the hearing, the determination whether probable cause exists for believing that an offense has been committed and the accused committed it.
State Court System State Supreme Court Intermediate Appellate Court Superior Court Circuit Court District Court Probate Court County Court Municipal Court Juvenile Court Justice of the Peace Court
Federal Court System U.S. Supreme Court Appellate Courts (11 circuits plus DC circuit) District Courts (91 districts in 50 states)
Specialized Courts Tribal courts Community courts Problem-solving courts Drug courts DWI courts Domestic violence courts Mental health courts Homeless courts Reentry courts Teen courts/youth courts Juvenile drug courts and gun courts Waiver to adult court
The Adversary System Accuser (prosecution) vs. accused (defense). Accuser must prove beyond a reasonable doubt to judge or jury that accused is guilty of a specified crime. Presumption of innocence: the accused is assumed innocent until proof to the contrary is clearly established.
Key Players in the Judicial Process Defendant Prosecutor Defense attorney Judge Jury
Critical Stages in the Criminal Justice System Complaint or charge Warrant Arrest Booking Preliminary hearing Grand jury hearing Arraignment Trial Sentencing
Alternatives to a Trial Diversion: discretionary decision to keep a case out of the criminal justice system Plea bargaining: legal negotiation between prosecution and defense Most all criminal convictions are disposed of through plea bargaining—possibly as many as 95%.
Trial • Venue is determined • Jury selection • Testimony • Closing statements and jury deliberation • Sentencing • Case review and appeal
Police Officers in Court Preparing a case for prosecution Appearing as a witness Testifying under direct examination Testifying under cross-examination Expert testimony
Courtroom Security Licensed deputies may serve as professional security forces to secure the main entrances in major and established courtrooms. Visitors and court employees passing through entrances are screened. In some states, the sheriff is mandated to “attend court.”
Study Time • The main focus of the reentry court is to? • In 1899, the Juvenile Court Act created the first • Adjudication hearing (page 515) • Bench trial (page 535) • The degree of proof necessary to obtain a conviction is ?
Study Time • Hung jury (page 536) • (pages 519-520) Community courts apply the principles of: • Sentencing guidelines (page 538) • Adjudication (page 513) • An acquittal is a formal certification by the court stating that the accused is found?