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Aerotriangulation Data Reduction using AeroSys-AT. Collect AT Info Make a New AeroSys Project Translate Photocoordinate data Pre-processing Bundle Adjustment . Collect AT Info. Gather Ground Control Point file Convert to AeroSys CTL format How good is your control?

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aerotriangulation data reduction using aerosys at
Aerotriangulation Data Reduction using AeroSys-AT
  • Collect AT Info
  • Make a New AeroSys Project
        • Translate Photocoordinate data
  • Pre-processing
  • Bundle Adjustment

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

collect at info
Collect AT Info
  • Gather Ground Control Point file
        • Convert to AeroSys CTL format
        • How good is your control?
        • Get gcp sigma's!, Time = $$
        • Plot out in scatter chart PtID,X,Y
  • Measure AT Data
        • Softcopy or Analytical Plotter
        • Export to desired format (ptb, etc.)
        • Refined vs. Raw
  • Collect Camera Calibration Info
        • Focal Length, Xo, Yo, K0, K1, K2, K3, P1, P2, P3

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

make new aerosys project
Make New AeroSys Project
  • Put data files into designated directory
        • Measured photocoordinates (*.ptb, etc)
        • Ground Control (*.ctl)
  • Project (File) Basename & CTL file
  • Photocoordinate Format Type
  • Block Configuration
  • Camera Information

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

translate photocoordinate data into aerosys ref format
Translate Photocoordinate Data into AeroSys (*.REF) Format
  • Verify input format type
  • Refined vs. Raw
        • Refined – No Fiducials or Interior Points
        • Raw – How many fiducials: 4 or 8
  • Units – millimeter or microns
  • Did translation parse OK?

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

data pre processing
Data Pre-processing
  • Prepro
        • Photocoordinate Refinement(REFINE)
        • Relative Orientation (RELORN)
        • Strip Formation (STRIPFORM)
        • Block Formation (BLOCKFORM)
        • Model Coords to Ground (ESTIMATE)
        • Photo Resection (RESECT)
        • Point Intersection (INTERSECT)
        • Merge data files (MERGE)
        • Pre-Bundle Data Check (IMAGE RAYS)

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

photocoordinate refinement refine raw photocoordinates only
Photocoordinate Refinement(REFINE)(raw photocoordinates only)
  • 2D-Affine transformation from plate coordinates to camera system
  • Option to remove radial lens distortion
  • Input = *.PHC, *.CAL
  • Output = *.REF

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

relative orientation relorn
Relative Orientation (RELORN)
  • Makes independent models from adjacent over-lapping photos in each strip
  • Is direction of flight correct?
  • Input = *.REF, *.CAL, *.CTL
  • Output = *.REL

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

strip formation stripform
Strip Formation (STRIPFORM)
  • Connects adjacent independent models together in a strip in model space coords
  • Minimum 3 common points & photo center
  • Input = *.REL
  • Output = *.STP

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

block formation blockform
Block Formation (BLOCKFORM)
  • Similar to STRIPFORM, but makes a single block of coordinates from adjacent strips in model space
  • Checks that strips are tied together
  • Ideal for AB-GPS application with few gcp’s
  • Input = *.STP
  • Output = *.BLK

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

model coordinates to ground estimate
Model Coordinates to Ground (ESTIMATE)
  • Transforms model space coordinate to object space (ground) coordinates
  • 2 Options
        • Strip Polynomial Adjustment Input = *.STP, *.CTL
        • 2D/3D Hybrid transformation Input = *.BLK, *.CTL
  • Tie point analysis in log file
  • Output = *.EST

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

photo resection resect
Photo Resection (RESECT)
  • Computes the Exterior Orientations of each photo in each strip
  • Omega, Phi, Kappa, XL, YL, ZL
  • Input = *.CAL, *.REF, *.EST
  • Output = *.CAM, *.RST

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

point intersection intersect
Point Intersection (INTERSECT)
  • Computes object space (ground) coordinates for points missed-out during model and strip formation
  • Input = *.REF, *.EST, *.RST
  • Output = “updated” *.EST

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

merge data files merge
Merge data files (MERGE)
  • Merges data files from previous PREPRO step into a first approximation data file for the Aero bundle adjustment
  • Inputs = *.CAL, *.CAM, *.EST, *.REF
  • Output = *.AER

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

pre bundle data check image rays
Pre-Bundle Data Check (IMAGE RAYS)
  • Performs space (point) intersections on all object (ground) points from initial approximations
  • Warning Tool for gross blunders
  • Input = *.AER
  • Output = GUI

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

prepro statistics
PREPRO Statistics
  • *.LOG text files for each step
        • REFINE
        • RELORN
        • STRIPFORM
        • BLOCKFORM
        • ESTIMATE
        • RESECT
        • INTERSECT
        • IMAGERAYS
  • Full Statistics, observations and residuals

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

special prepro features
Special PREPRO Features
  • RELORN
        • Auto eliminate gross misfits
        • Explicitly remove observation with FLAG = 0
  • BLOCKFORM
        • Reports used and un-used control points
  • ESTIMATE
        • Auto eliminate gross misfits
        • Re-designates bad ground control into check points
        • Tie-point reporting & Threshold Limits on deltas
  • RESECT
        • Auto eliminate gross misfits

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

bundle adjustment
Bundle Adjustment
  • Aero.exe
      • Input
        • Prepro Approximations (*.AER)
      • Cycle
        • Run
        • Analyze Statistics
          • Quick Summary
          • Model Check
        • Edit
      • Output
        • Adjusted Ground Coordinate (*.XYZ)
        • Adjusted Orientations (*.ORN)
        • Other formats (ORI, Itera, Dapor, Z/I, VirtuoZo, etc)

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

before we get started
Before we get started …
  • AeroSys main menu gui
    • Title bar
        • Data directory
        • Project base name
    • Menu Bar
    • Button (Icon) Bar

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

main menu title bar
Main Menu Title Bar
  • Data Directory
      • G:\AeroTriangulation\Projects\CityofSaintPaul\
  • Project Basename
      • TwinCities
  • AeroSys file extensions ( * )

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

main menu bar
Main Menu Bar
  • Pull-down Menus
    • File
        • Preferences
    • Translate
    • Aerial
    • Bundle
    • Utils
    • Help

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

main menu button bar
Main Menu Button Bar
  • Project GUI
  • Auto-Prepro
  • Convert / Translate
  • Prepro
  • Aero Bundle

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prepro functions
Prepro Functions
  • Flip-Flop
  • Add GPS
  • Legacy Functions
        • Split
        • Build
        • Combine
  • Refine
  • RelOrn
  • StripForm
  • BlockForm
  • Estimate
  • Resect
  • Intersect
  • Merge
  • Image Rays

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prepro gui
Prepro GUI

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prepro gui1
Prepro GUI
  • Status Info
  • Options Group Box
  • Quick Summary
  • Messages
  • Operation Buttons
  • Function Tabs

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prepro gui2
Prepro GUI
  • Status Info
    • Current Status
    • Which Prepro step
    • Progress Bar

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prepro gui3
Prepro GUI
  • Options Group Box
      • Different for each step

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prepro gui4
Prepro GUI
  • Quick Summary
    • Lists RMSE residuals

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prepro gui5
Prepro GUI
  • Messages
    • Internal Processing

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prepro gui6
Prepro GUI
  • Operation Buttons
    • GO start processing step
    • NEXT advance to next step
    • SKIP skip over processing step
    • BACK back-up to previous step

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prepro gui7
Prepro GUI
  • Function Tabs
    • Not Enabled, Visual Feedback Only
    • Use operation buttons to navigate

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set operating preferences
Set Operating Preferences
  • File | Preferences | Aerial Auto-Sequence
  • Run Sequence
  • Options
    • Passpoint Prefix
    • Lens Distortion
    • Estimate
    • Check Image Rays

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

program run sequence
Program Run Sequence
  • Check Box to enable step
  • Usually start with RelOrn
  • End with Aero Bundle

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prepro options
Prepro Options
  • Delete Passpoint Prefix
    • Legacy option from JFK’s historical RABATS/BRATS
    • Required “99” to prefix passpoints
    • Afterwards stripped-off prefix from the point ID

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

prepro options1
Prepro Options
  • Remove Lens Distortion
    • For RAW photocoords only

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

prepro options2
Prepro Options
  • ESTIMATE step

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prepro options3
Prepro Options
  • Pre-Bundle Adjustment Error Checking step

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other preferences
Other Preferences
  • Default Standard Deviations

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other preferences1
Other Preferences
  • Max

residual limits

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other preferences2
Other Preferences
  • Passpoint ID

Needed for RelOrn & Poly Strip Adjustment

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other preferences3
Other Preferences
  • Tie point thresholds

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other preferences4
Other Preferences
  • Plug-in to your favorite text Editor

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started step 1
Getting Started … step 1
  • Organize your data
        • Project directory?
        • Project basename?
        • Ground control data
          • sigma's?
        • Camera calibration on-hand?
        • Photocoordinate measurements
          • Exported format

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getting started step 2
Getting Started …step 2
  • Make AeroSys Project
        • Launch Project GUI

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getting started step 21
Getting Started …step 2
  • Need Info in for these categories

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getting started step 2 a 1
Getting Started …step 2(a.1)

Select File | New menu item

from Project Info gui

Select Data Directory &

Enter Project Base Name

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getting started step 2 a 11
Getting Started …step 2(a.1)
  • Data directory & Project basename are extracted from file chooser

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getting started step 2 a 2
Getting Started …step 2(a.2)
  • Select Ground Control (*.CTL) file
    • Click on “2” to get file chooser dialog

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started step 2 b
Getting Started …step 2(b)
  • Select Photocoordinate Type

Example: PAT-B format, Refined, Unpaired

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getting started step 2 b1
Getting Started …step 2(b)
  • Special Settings for ABC32 and ALBANY
  • Converts Strip & Photo (position) Number into a unique Photo ID

Example

Strip no.3, Photo no.11

Photo ID no.   311

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started step 2 c
Getting Started …step 2(c)
  • Enter Block Configuration Info

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getting started step 2 c1
Getting Started …step 2(c)
  • First, set total number of flight strips

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getting started step 2 c2
Getting Started …step 2(c)
  • Next, assign data file to strip number
        • Select Strip No. using spin buttons
        • Click “Green Plus” to assign data file
        • File parser will determine first, last

and total photos in strip

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getting started step 2 c3
Getting Started …step 2(c)
  • Use :
        • Green plus sign to assign data file with chooser
        • White text icon to view data file
        • Red minus sign to remove assignment

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started step 2 c4
Getting Started …step 2(c)
  • Use:
    • Blue-green icon to swap first & last photo Ids
    • Direction of actual flight must be the same as the ordered IDs
    • Hand enter photo IDs if data file contains all strips-in-1 file
    • Photo Ids can be incremented by “2” in special overlap cases

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getting started step 2 c5
Getting Started …step 2(c)
  • Are all flight strips in 1 data file?
        • Enter first & last photo Ids by hand
        • Click on, “strips All-in-1 file”
        • Click on, Green Plus sign to get file chooser

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getting started step 2 d
Getting Started …step 2(d)
  • Assign camera to project from data base

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getting started step 2 d1
Getting Started …step 2(d)
  • To add camera to data base:
        • Click on the blue arrow icon in URH corner

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getting started step 2 d2
Getting Started …step 2(d)
  • Click on:
      • Edit to modify an existing camera
      • New to add a new camera
      • Delete to remove a camera
      • Done to finish input of data
      • Select_OK to save camera entry
      • Cancel to return without saving

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getting started step 2 d3
Getting Started …step 2(d)
  • Enter camera calibration data into gui, or
        • Click the yellow file open icon to select a pre-existing

AeroSys *.CAL data file to import

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started step 2 d4
Getting Started …step 2(d)
  • Click on Save to write the new project file
  • Click on OK to save and exit gui
  • Click on Cancel to exit gui without saving

You are done setting up a project !

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started after step 2
Getting Started …after step 2
  • Take a quick look at your project data directory
      • Photocoordinate files *.PTB
      • Ground Control file *.CTL
      • Camera Info file *.CAL
      • Project file *.PRJ (legacy *.idx)

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started step 3
Getting Started …step 3
  • Translate the photo coordinates to native AeroSys *.REF refined format

Click here to translate

Settings are saved for next time you translate

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getting started step 31
Getting Started …step 3
  • Translation Options
        • Supported Photocoordinate Formats

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getting started step 32
Getting Started …step 3
  • Translation Options
    • Coordinate Type
    • Number of Fids
    • Units

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getting started step 33
Getting Started …step 3
  • Translation Feedback
    • Parsing Error?

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getting started step 34
Getting Started …step 3 ½
  • Start Pre-processing …. with REFINE
        • Done only withRAW photocoordinate type such as ABC32 *.TRI files
        • If photocoords are refined, skip this step and go on to step 4
        • Converts *.PHC to *.REF

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getting started step 4
Getting Started …step 4
  • Start Pre-processing …. with RELORN
        • “Relative Orientation” of independent models

Click on GO

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getting started step 41
Getting Started …step 4
  • If photo IDs are listed in reverse order (i.e.,opposite the direction of flight), go back to project setup, edit (i.e., swap), save and then re-translate photo coordinates

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started step 42
Getting Started …step 4
  • Check Quick Summary window
        • want RO’s to be “squeaky clean” !!
        • RMS_Vy <= 3.0 microns
  • Click the NEXT button to proceed

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getting started step 5
Getting Started …step 5
  • Next after RELORN is … STRIPFORM
        • Click on GO
        • Just want models to reasonably connect together, don’t sweat the residuals unless they are very large (order of magnitude in 100’s of micron’s)

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started step 6
Getting Started …step 6
  • Next after STRIPFORM is … BLOCKFORM
        • Click on GO
        • Just want Strips to reasonably connect together, don’t sweat the residuals unless they are very large (order of magnitude in 100’s of micron’s)

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started step 7
Getting Started …step 7
  • Next after BLOCKFORM is … ESTIMATE
    • Strip Polynomial or 2D-3D Hybrid transformation ?
  • Prefer strip polynomial
    • Does every strip have enough GCP’s ?
    • Otherwise, use Hybrid method
  • Tie point analysis … see log file

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getting started step 71
Getting Started …step 7
  • Check Quick Summary
    • Are residuals reasonable?

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getting started step 8
Getting Started …step 8
  • Next after ESTIMATE is … RESECT
    • Check Quick Summary
    • Do all Photo EO’s solve?
    • Don’t sweat the residuals, just need to solve!

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getting started step 9
Getting Started …step 9
  • Next after RESECT is … INTERSECT
    • Finds missed-out points in data

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getting started step 10
Getting Started …step 10
  • Next after INTERSECT is … MERGE
  • Creates initial approximation (*.AER) input file for the Aero.exe least-square bundle adjustment from previous PREPRO steps
        • *.CAL (camera info)
        • *.CAM (orientations)
        • *.EST (ground coords)
        • *.REF (photo coords)

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getting started step 11
Getting Started …step 11
  • Next after MERGE is … IMAGE RAYS
    • Data checking for mis-IDed points

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getting started after step 11
Getting Started …after step 11
  • You are now ready to run the Aero bundle adjustment!!
  • Things to keep in mind?
    • Blunders still may exist in data
    • Turn override option OFF until no blunders
    • When only random error, turn override ON

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

getting started step 12
Getting Started …step 12
  • Run the AERO.exe bundle adjustment
  • Check operating parameters
    • Override option
    • Self-Cal
    • AB-GPS
    • Earth Curvature

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getting started step 121
Getting Started …step 12
  • AERO gui
    • Click stop light icon to run

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getting started step 12 run
Getting Started …step 12-run
  • Aero run-time GUI

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getting started step 122
Getting Started …step 12
  • Aero Quick Summary gui

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analysis details
Analysis Details
  • Image space stats
    • Final Sxy
    • RMSE Vx & Vy (mm)
    • Standardized Residuals Wx & Wy (unit-less)

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analysis details1
Analysis Details
  • Top Ten Largest Residuals
  • Units = mm

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analysis details2
Analysis Details
  • Root Mean Square Photocoordinate Residuals
  • Units = micrometers
  • Vx ~ Vy

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analysis details3
Analysis Details
  • Final Weights assigned to photocoordinate observations
  • Static = Override Option OFF
  • So Override = ON

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analysis details4
Analysis Details
  • What is Override Option?
    • Feature that automatically balances the weights assigned to the photocoordinate observations with the other observational types in the block adjustment
  • Want final So (S-naught) to equal 1.0
    • Ensure optimal solution and needed by Data Snooping mathematics

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analysis details5
Analysis Details
  • Standardized Photocoordinate Residuals
      • Wx, Wy
  • Unit-less statistic
  • Outliers
      • Greater than +/- 3.29

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analysis details6
Analysis Details
  • Possible Blunders?
  • Click button to view list of suspected points
  • Only the largest is the likely candidate !

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analysis details7
Analysis Details
  • Ground (object) Space Residuals
    • RMSE for control
    • Check Points List
    • Wx, Wy, Wz
    • Blunders List

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analysis details8
Analysis Details
  • Post-Adjustment Predicted Coordinate Mean Accuracies
  • Units = ground control

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analysis details9
Analysis Details
  • Want So to be ~ 1.0
    • Chi-square interval [ Lo ... 1.0 … Hi ]
    • Based on DOF’s
  • Why ?
    • Balanced Weights
    • Optimal Solution
    • Data Snooping Theory

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analysis details10
Analysis Details
  • Evaluation Criterion
  • RED – critical fail
  • YELLOW – warning
  • GREEN – passed
  • Use as guide, not gospel

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analysis details11
Analysis Details
  • Criterion Components
  • Photocoords
      • 1 - 4
  • Ground Coords
      • 5 - 7
  • Error Budget
      • 8 - 9

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analysis details12
Analysis Details

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analysis details13
Analysis Details

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analysis details14
Analysis Details

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analysis details15
Analysis Details
  • Mean predicted accuracies of aero-triangulated points in X, Y & Z
  • Represents 1 sigma

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analysis details16
Analysis Details
  • Want 90% confidence that error component of AT-ed points are no greater than one-sixth of contour interval
  • One-sixth ~ rule-of-thumb, not gospel

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analysis details17
Analysis Details
  • Want 90% confidence that error component of AT-ed points are no greater than one-sixth of delta map scale values

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analysis details18
Analysis Details
  • Quick access to Model Check Tool
  • Tool to evaluate how well model AO’s are expected to setup
    • Check for bad models
    • Check for bad points
    • Check for duplicate points

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model check gui
Model Check Gui

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point check output
Point Check Output
  • 3103 2431584.352 1867925.503 647.214 PP4
  • 3 7 311_310 0.155 0.113 0.133 . . .
  • 3 8 310_309 0.665 -1.153 -1.410 4.4 6.2 5.1
  • 4 9 409_410 0.344 0.335 -0.369 . . .
  • 4 10 410_411 -0.237 0.330 -0.415 . . .
  • -9
  • A dot “ . “ signifies that the residual is less than 3x’s the mean RMSE, otherwise print how many times greater than the overall mean

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aerosys output files
AeroSys Output Files

Adjusted Orientations

  • .ORN (AeroSys)
  • .ASO (Z/I)
  • .OPK (ER Mapper)
  • .ORI (PAT-B)
  • .Triang (Softplotter)
  • Dapor.dat (BLUH)
  • ITERA.dat (BINGO)
  • .PXYZOPK ( ??? )
  • .VZ.aop (VirtuoZo)

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aerosys output files1
AeroSys Output Files
  • .ADJ (AeroSys)
  • .XYZ (AeroSys)
  • .CON (ABC)
  • .PXYZ (VirtuoZo)
  • .GCP (R-Wel)

Adjusted Object (Ground) Space Coordinates

  • .GPE (CalTran)
  • .GPA ( ??? )
  • .PBM (BC-Gov)
  • .DATA
  • .DATM

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aerosys output files2
AeroSys Output Files

Miscellaneous Files

  • .AER (bundle input)
  • .AQS (aero quick summary)
  • .CQS (control quick summary)
  • .PQS (pcoords quick summary)
  • .CKP (check points)
  • .ICA (image coords adjusted)
  • .ELLIPSE (error ellipses)
  • .RES (pcoords residuals)
  • .PRJ (project file)

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)

prepro data files
Prepro Data Files
  • .BLK (model coords as 1 block)
  • .CAL (cam calibration)
  • .CAM (camera orientations)
  • .CTL (ground control)
  • .EST (ground coordinates)
  • .REF (refined photocoords)
  • .PHC (raw photocoords)
  • .REL (model coords)
  • .RST (resection)
  • .STP (model coords as per strip)

(c) AeroSys Consulting, MHS (IPC)