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Hawk Hook 1/25. Have answers ready for Question 7. Get ready for the Human Geography in Action. Sit with 1 or AT MOST 2 partners Log onto the internet using FireFox (on the student menu) Search: Human Geography in Action Make the 1 st Choice: “Wiley:…4 th Edition”

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hawk hook 1 25
Hawk Hook 1/25
  • Have answers ready for Question 7.
  • Get ready for the Human Geography in Action. Sit with 1 or AT MOST 2 partners
  • Log onto the internet using FireFox (on the student menu)
  • Search: Human Geography in Action
  • Make the 1st Choice: “Wiley:…4th Edition”
  • Follow the link to the Student Companion site under “Students” on the right side of the screen
  • Follow the link to the Computerized Chapter Activities on the left
  • Press “8.1. Agriculture…”
  • Once there Wait for everyone!
    • For the Ones Marked YOU MUST record a fact about that type of agriculture from the reading in the exercise.
    • This will be a major assignment grade (AKA a grade booster for
types of jobs available
Types of Jobs Available
  • 3 Categories of jobs
    • Primary: Agricultural positions
    • Secondary: Manufacturing Industries
    • Tertiary: Services (3 types)
primary sector
Primary Sector
  • Directly extract materials from the Earth
    • Includes agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry
    • Securing Food # 1 priority for people
    • > 60% of pop in LDC’s
      • What would the physiological and agricultural densities of these countries look like?
      • What does this indicate about how people spend their time?
    • < 5% of pop in MDC’s
      • What would the physiological and agricultural densities of these countries look like?
      • What does this indicate about how people spend their time?
secondary sector
Secondary Sector
  • Manufacturers that process, transform, and assemble raw materials into products
    • Decline in Secondary sector jobs in MDC’s
      • Result of Increased technology (not as many people necessary to do a job)
      • Result of Globalization of the Economy
      • Transnational Corporations: Produce in countries with lower wages and unionization
tertiary sector
Tertiary Sector
  • Providing goods and services to people in exchange for money
  • Increase in MDC’s
      • Result of increased demand due to rising standard of living
  • 3 Types
      • Unskilled: Retail clerks and low ranking managers, restaurant employees
      • Quaternary: intellectual/professional services : government, education, libraries, scientific research, information technology, high ranking managers
      • Quinary Sector - top officials within quaternary sector : Examples would be President/Congressman for government or university professors for education, CEOs of companies
agriculture and rural land use

Agriculture and Rural Land Use

Its Development, Diffusion, and Cultural and Environmental Effects

hawk hook 1 30
Hawk Hook 1/30
  • Summarize the 3 main sectors of the economy. Include the following:
    • What types of jobs are held within each sector
    • Whether they are more prevalent in the Core or Periphery
why is this significant
Why is this significant?
  • Agriculture fundamental foundation of civilization
  • The most common person in the world is an Asian Farmer who produces just enough food to survive with little to no surplus
  • Contrasts American way of life: Business of Farming (Agricultural products consumed by more than just the farmer)
  • Contrast in agricultural practices is one of the fundamental differences between MDC’s and LDC’s…
hunting and gathering
Hunting and Gathering
  • Before agriculture
  • Small societies that moved frequently based on movement of game and seasonal growth of plants
  • 250,000 people still live this way today
    • South America, Arctic, Africa, Australia
      • Isolated on the periphery of world settlements
agriculture a great accident
Agriculture: A Great Accident
  • Began as an accident
    • Accidentally dropped food scraps
    • Noticed new plants grew
  • Continued through Experimentation
1 st vegetative planting
1st Vegetative Planting
  • Geographer Carl Sauer found that Vegetative Planting:
    • Earliest form of plant cultivation
    • Means: reproducing plants by dividing an already existing plant and transplanting the piece
1 st vegetative planting1
1st Vegetative Planting
  • First Hearth: South East Asia
      • What climate do they have?
        • Conducive to wide variety of plants
      • What do you believe their main source of food was? How did this practice help encourage agricultural development?
      • First to domesticate dogs, pigs, and chickens
  • Other Hearths:
    • Northwestern South America
    • West Africa
2 nd seed agriculture
2nd Seed Agriculture
  • Carl Sauer found that
    • Means: Reproduction through annual planting of seeds
    • 3 hearths in Eastern Hemisphere: Western India, Northern China, and Ethiopia
      • From India to SW Asia: Integration of plants and Animals ~ fundamental to modern agriculture
        • SW Asia: wheat and barley agriculture begins)
        • Domestication of cattle, sheep and goats (draft animals)
seed agriculture
Seed Agriculture
  • 2 Hearths in Western Hemisphere:
      • Southern Mexico: squash and maize (corn)
      • Peru: beans and potatoes
      • Animals: llama, alpaca, turkey
ldc s versus mdc s
LDC’s versus MDC’s
  • Subsistence Agriculture in LDCs
  • Commercial Agriculture in MDCs
  • 5 features distinguishing these 2
    • Purpose of Farming
    • % of farmers in the labor force
    • Use of Machinery
    • Farm size
    • Relationship of farming to other businesses
purpose of farming
Purpose of Farming

LDC: Subsistence

MDC: Commercial

Raise animals or grow crops for sale off the farm

Not much direct sale to consumers

  • Produce food for your own consumption
critical thinking
Critical Thinking
  • How do you believe the Industrial Revolution impacted farming?
of farmers in the labor force
% of Farmers in the Labor Force

LDCs Subsistence

MDCs Commercial

1/10th of workers farm

Agricultural density?

  • ½ of workers farm
  • Agricultural density?
use of machinery
Use of Machinery

LDCs Subsistence

MDCs Commercial

High Tech machines allow fewer people to do the work

Scientifically modified crops

How these advances help with quality and quantity?

  • Human and animal labor
relationship of farming to other businesses
Relationship of Farming to other Businesses
  • MDCs: Commercial
    • Creates agribusiness (food production industry that controls EVERY stage of production from farm to shelf)
      • Processing, packaging, storing, distributing, retailing food products
      • Uses modern technologies to track prices, yields, and expenditures (videos)
farm size
Farm Size

MDCs Commercial

Mechanization allowed for large farms

US Example:

98% Family Owned and operated

1.4% of US Farms account for 48% of agricultural sales

Fewer farmers today but more farmland than previously


Prime Agricultural Land disappearing (reading)


hawk hook 2 4
Hawk Hook 2/4

In complete sentences explain the different agricultural techniques employed by MDCs and LDCs in terms of purpose of agriculture, mechanization, and the size of their farms.

  • Identifies 11 agricultural regions
  • Regions sorted mostly by climate
    • Why would this make sense?
    • Why must you be leery of placing too much emphasis on climate? What else may influence agricultural practices?
climatic relationship
Climatic Relationship
  • Tropical, Humid, Low-Latitude Climates
  • Amazon of South America, Central and West Africa, and parts of SE Asia
  • Use Slash-and-Burn Agriculture: clear land by slashing vegetation than burning it
    • Land called swidden or milpa
  • Grow on cleared land for a few years, stripping it of resources, then letting it lay fallow for years to recover
  • Grow variety of crops. Why?
  • More land used for this purpose than any other type of agriculture but only 5% of population engages in this type
  • “Inefficient” Can only support small population without environmental destruction
characteristics of people
Characteristics of People
  • Live in small villages
  • Farmland controlled by village
  • Each family allocated part of communal land (now some own land)
  • If field doesn’t produce enough food, few people move and create their own settlement
future of shifting cultivation
Future of Shifting Cultivation
  • Tropical Rainforests disappearing
  • Shifting Cultivation replaced by logging, cattle ranching, and cash crops
shifting cultivation and the environment
Shifting Cultivation and the Environment
  • What could be some advantages and disadvantages to ending shifting cultivation?
    • Advantage: other forms of agriculture yield more per land area, enabling more people to be fed
    • Disadvantages: Other forms damage soil permanently in tropics
      • What are some problems with destroying the rainforest:
        • global warming, destruction of folk culture surrounding agricultural practices
climatic relationship1
Climatic Relationship
  • Mostly found in Arid and Semiarid land
  • Why?
  • Much of North Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia
    • Ex. Bedouins of Middle East and Masai of East Africa
  • Subsistence agriculture based on herding animals
    • Migrate depending on availability of water and food for herd and people
    • Transhumance: seasonal _____________ between mountains and lowland pastures
  • Territoriality: migrate only within own piece of land unless declaring war
  • Still eat primarily grain
  • Size of herd: symbol of power and security in a harsh environment
  • Type of animal dependent on environment
  • Together with Shifting Cultivation occupies the largest percentage of the world’s land area
future of pastoral nomadism
Future of Pastoral Nomadism
  • Fighting control by national governments
    • Forced into confined areas due to desire of their lands (petroleum, mining, etc)
    • Nomadic lands smaller and smaller towards lands with little to no resources or irrigation capabilities
  • Agriculture that intensely makes use of almost every parcel of arable land to feed the large population of E, S, and SE Asia
    • Where environmentally possible practice Double Cropping: rice in the rainy, warm, summers; Wheat or Barley in cool, dry winter
  • VERY High agricultural densities
    • Cultural practices enable them to sustain on a very small piece of land
    • 2 Types Dependent on Environment
      • Wet Rice Dominant
      • Wet Rice Not Dominant
wet rice dominant
Wet Rice Dominant
  • Growing rice in a dry nursery before transplanting into a flooded field: sawah
  • Use of plow and animal power: distinguishes this from shifting cultivation
  • Harvested by hand
  • Clustered in coastal areas of India and SE Asia due to low land and abundant water
wet rice not dominant
Wet Rice Not Dominant
  • Wheat most important crop
  • In places with low summer precipitation and harsh winters (interior India, NE China)
  • Produces additional harvests through crop rotation: rotating to a different crop each year to ensure good soil quality every year
  • Large farm specializing in one or two crops
  • Commercial Agriculture in the LDCs sold to MDCs (usually Latin America, Asia, Africa)
  • Owned by Europeans or North Americans
  • Worked by imported labor that lives on site
  • Tropics and Subtropics
  • Integrates Livestock and crops
    • Crops raised to feed animals mostly not people
    • Animals fertilize crops
  • Provides Year Long Income: crops in harvest times, animal products year round
  • Uses system of Crop Rotation
  • Found in:
    • US ~ From the Appalachian Mts to middle of country
      • Most important region ~ Corn Belt: Ohio to Iowa (oil, ethanol, food products, and food for animals) [video-farm subsidies ]
      • How are farm subsidies affecting the US?
    • Europe ~ from France to Russia
poultry in us
Poultry in US
  • Demand for poultry production increasing
    • Due to global and national population increases as well as the understanding of the health benefits of these products
  • Operations have become larger
    • Due to mechanization, agribusinesses, and use of chemicals producing larger, healthier meats
  • Clustering of production
    • Found mostly in economically depressed areas, near markets, and taking advantage of lower wage rates and attracting immigrant laborers
  • Found in: NE US, SE Canada, NW Europe, S and E Asia in the ring around urban areas called the milkshed
    • Why are Dairy Farms close to urban areas?
    • India largest producer of milk…Culturally why might this be?
regional differences
Regional Differences
  • Dairy Farms farther from big urban areas produce milk byproducts (cheese, butter, etc) Why?
    • EX: NE Dairy Farms: Milk for NE cities, Wisconsin the Cheese State because farther from the big cities
    • Same worldwide
  • Labor intensive: must milk 2 times a day
  • Expensive: must produce or purchase food for cattle in winter
  • Less Diary Farmers today but those left are more productive
  • Grain (wheat, corn, oats, barley , rice, etc. seeds) sold for human consumption
  • Wheat most important: easy to store and ship without spoilage
north american wheat
North American Wheat
  • Prairies of US and Canada world’s “Breadbasket”
  • Winter Wheat: Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma
    • Planted in Autumn, Harvested early Summer
  • Spring Wheat: Dakotas, Montana, Saskatchewan, (Harsh winters)
    • Planted in Spring, Harvested late Summer
  • Own farms in both areas to increase production and share equipment (combine does work)
  • Commercial grazing of Livestock over an extensive piece of land
  • Found in arid or semiarid areas with poor soil
  • Western US, SE South America (Argentina, Brazil), Middle East, and Australia
  • Pampas of Argentina produce less than US but export more why?
evolution of ranching
Evolution of Ranching
  • 1st herded animals over open ranges
    • (seminomadic)
  • 2nd Turned into fixed farming: Gov: break land into fixed ranches
  • 3rd Many decided to grow crops (more profitable)
  • 4th Ranches confined to dry areas
  • 5th Not profitable on its own, so Meat-Processing Industry bought ranches
us cattle ranching ex
US Cattle Ranching Ex
  • Taught by Spanish and Portuguese settlers
  • Lost much land when US gov. sold it to sedentary farmers in mid-late 1800’s
    • Disputes btwn farmers and ranchers “Range Wars”
  • Shift to fixed–location Ranching:
    • 60% of Ranching land today leased to ranchers from gov.
    • New Cattle breads cannot handle long journeys
climatic relationship2
Climatic Relationship
  • Lands surrounding Mediterranean, California, parts of Chile, and South Africa, and Australia
  • Similar Climates: Sea winds: moderate, moist winters and hot, dry, summers
  • Hilly and mountainous to the sea
    • Under what form of migration would herders in this area use?
  • Horticulture: commercially growing fruits, vegetables, and flowers (trees)
    • What crops grown along the Mediterranean? California?
  • California
    • LA on Prime Agricultural Land
    • Why?
    • Farming on arid, irrigated land eating up SW US’s water supply
climatic relationship3
Climatic Relationship
  • Found in: SE US
  • Long growing season, humid climate, accessible to large NE markets
  • During Winter most come from Latin America, especially Chile, Ecuador, Panama, and Costa Rica
  • Called Truck Farming:
    • (truck Middle English word for bartering)
  • WIDE variety of fruits and vegetables to developed nations
  • Contrast to other commercial agriculture, some sold directly to consumers (Farmer’s Market)
  • Mechanized at every stage of production
  • Use of Migrant Labor (often undocumented)
  • Specialty Farming: NE US, affluent crops (asparagus, strawberries, mushrooms, etc)
    • Alternative to failing dairy farms
hawk hook2 13
Hawk Hook2/13

Agricultural Region

  • China is the largest producer of wheat. But what country produces the most wheat for world wide sale? What do we call this region? (2 points)
  • Explain the discrepancy between these two in terms the type of agriculture these two are engaging in and population levels. (4 points)
  • Identify the two types of this crop and where and why each is most popular (6 points)
  • Discuss why agribusinesses often own farms in both regions. (2 points)
von th nen model

Von Thünen Model

Agriculture, Market, and Distance

  • Proposed by German Geographer & Economist Johann Heinrich Von Thunen in the late 1800s.

Basic Idea

  • Farmers decide what crops to grow and/or what animals to raise based on their location relative to the main market
  • Two Considerations
    • Cost of Land: Crops and Livestock that need extensive amounts of land will be found farther from the market because the land is cheaper, maximizes profit
    • Cost of Transportation: So crops or livestock that cost a lot to transport or could spoil before making to the market will be located closer to the markets, maximize profit
  • Failures of this model
    • All sites and situations are not created equal: resources, soil quality, topography may not be good for all types of agriculture
    • Doesn’t take into consideration cultural beliefs like taboos or simply a desire to grow or raise a certain crop
    • Government intervention such as zoning: governments say certain land can be used for certain purposes
    • Modern Technology: (possibilism) refrigerated trucks, can have dairy farms farther because of refrigeration, green houses, interstate highways have lowed transportation costs
economic challenges of commercial farmers

Economic Challenges of Commercial Farmers

Overproduction in Commercial Farming

problem of supply and demand
Problem of Supply and Demand
  • What is the law of supply and demand?
  • Commercial farmers supply is higher than the demand for their products
    • Reason 1: Many agricultural products are not substitute goods. What is a substitute good?
      • (do not switch demand from wheat to corn bc it is cheaper)
    • Reason 2: Low Population Growth: no new markets to sell excess food to
    • Result: price of agricultural goods fall
government subsidies
Government Subsidies
  • Encouraged not to plant surplus crops
    • Plant Rest Crops instead
government subsidies cont
Government Subsidies Cont’
  • Price Floors
    • Set Minimum Price for crop…If farmer is paid less than that amount at the market, government pays the rest
government subsidies cont1
Government Subsidies Cont’
  • Government buys surplus goods
    • Sells or donates food to foreign governments
    • Give Food Stamps to stimulate purchase of excess items
advantages and disadvantages to subsidies
Advantages and Disadvantages to subsidies
  • Advantage: encourages farmers to keep farming despite low prices
    • Result: maintain rural way of life
  • Disadvantages
    • Encourages over production (no incentive to meet market needs)
    • High grocery prices (video)
hawk hook 2 12
Hawk Hook 2/12
  • What are some advantages and disadvantages of farm subsidies?
  • In your own words describe the Von Thunen model. List 2 failures of the model.
economic challenges of commercial farmers1

Economic Challenges of Commercial Farmers

Sustainable Agriculture in the MDCs

sustainable agriculture
Sustainable Agriculture
  • Farming that preserves and enhances environmental quality
    • Lower revenue but also lower costs
    • Example Organic Farming
  • 3 distinguishing practices of sustainable agriculture
    • Sensitive Land Management
    • Limited Use of Chemicals
    • Better Integration of crops and livestock
sensitive land management
Sensitive Land Management
  • System of Growing: minimal soil disturbance allowing for less need of heavy, expensive equipment
    • Increases organic matter, moisture, and drainage
    • More labor intensive but more profitable
limited use of chemicals
Limited Use of Chemicals
  • Farming techniques involve using chemicals only on crop grown areas (if at all), limiting problems with soil and water quality
    • More expensive and time consuming to be selective
integrated crop and livestock
Integrated Crop and Livestock
  • Today, many mixed crop and livestock farms choose to only grow crops or raise animals, then trade between farms for what they need
  • Integrated returns back to farming with both
challenges to icl
Challenges to “ICL”
  • Balancing Number of livestock with landscape qualities
    • Too many can create vegetation loss on crop land
    • Proper amount can reduce soil erosion on sloped areas
challenges to icl1
Challenges to “ICL”
  • Confining animals versus free range
    • Moral and ethical debate
    • Confining causes water pollutants and need for costly waste management facilities (however may yield more meat)
    • Free Range: manure improves soil quality but reduces neighborhood quality of life (i.e. hold your nose)
challenges to icl2
Challenges to “ICL”
  • Managing Extreme Weather Conditions
    • In periods of excess or reduced rainfall large herds can be a liability or a blessing
    • How?
    • How might this play out in a Mediterranean climate like California to benefit residents?
growth of organic farming
Growth of Organic Farming
  • Steady increase since 1970 in the US
  • 3 Factors:
    • Increased Demand
    • Careful land use
    • More profitable for small farms
1 increased demand
1. Increased Demand
  • Reasons for Increased Demand:
    • Media has driven concerns over nutrition and healthiness of foods grown with chemicals and/or genetically modified as well as the humane treatment of animals
    • Households are smaller in size and have more disposable income for these higher end products
2 careful land use
2. Careful land use
  • Reasons for careful land use
    • Many farmers and consumers switch to sustainable organic farming because they feel responsible for the long term well-being of the land
3 more profitable
3. More Profitable
  • Reasons for More Profitability:
    • Small-farmers cannot compete with the low prices offered by large US agribusinesses
    • Shift to the specialty food niche like organic farming because this intensive agriculture yields higher prices people are willing to spend for the quality
critical thinking1
Critical Thinking
  • Where is the vast majority of population growth occurring in the world?
  • What did Malthus say about food and population growth?
  • What does this mean for farming in these areas?
boserup thesis
Boserup Thesis
  • Ester Boserup, female Danish economist, response to Malthus
    • Population may be growing but food production CAN meet these needs
    • 2 methods of agricultural intensification
boserup thesis cont
Boserup Thesis Cont’
  • Changing methods of Fallowing (5 stages of farmland intensification)
    • Forest Fallow: work field for 2 years, fallow for 20; forest grows back
    • Bush Fallow: work field for 8 years, fallow for 10; small trees and bushes grow back
    • Short Fallow: work for 2 years, fallow for 2 years; grasses grow back
    • Annual Cropping: worked every year, fallow for a few months by planting legumes and roots
    • Multicropping: fields used several times a year, no fallowing
critical thinking2
Critical Thinking
  • What agricultural region is indicative of stage 1 “Forest Fallow”?
  • What areas of the world use this type?
    • Why?
  • What agricultural region is indicative of stage 5 “multicropping”?
  • What areas of the world use this type?
    • Why?
boserup thesis cont1
Boserup Thesis Cont’
  • Adopting new farming methods
    • Increase technology
    • Tend crops better (weeding, fertilizing, etc)
    • Create more fields
    • Irrigate more land
  • Where do they get the labor for all this additional work?
  • What do you know about the consumption of agricultural products from LDCs?
international trade
International Trade
  • LDCs need agricultural machinery to improve production
  • But Must switch from subsistence farming to export crops to gain capital to purchase equipment
  • Sell fruits, veggies to MDCs when out of season
irony of this method
Irony of this Method
  • Less crops grown for local consumption
  • Must use profits from sale of export crops to purchase food for people only farming for export
  • What is the result of this problem?
  • Although an international problem itself, what do you many LDC farmers turn to in order to generate a large profit?
so how do we increase the food supply then no easy answer

So…How do we increase the Food Supply then?...No easy answer

Four Strategies for increasing Food Supply and the problems with each

  • 4 Basic Strategies, none perfect
    • Expand Agricultural land
    • Increase the productivity of existing Agricultural land
    • Find new sources of Food
    • Increase exports
  • Population growing faster than agricultural expansion
  • Possible but problems inhibiting this growth
    • However, agricultural land is expanding in Africa
    • Possible in NA but actually decreasing
problem desertification
Problem: Desertification
  • Desertification: semiarid land degradation
    • Excessive Population exhausting soil nutrients
      • Over cultivation, animal grazing, and tree cutting
problem excessive water
Problem: Excessive Water
  • Inadequate drainage of irrigated land
    • Overtime roots waterlogged (especially harmful if includes salt water)
problem urbanization
Problem: Urbanization
  • Farms on periphery of urban areas turn into suburbs, reducing agricultural land
green revolution
Green Revolution
  • Green Revolution: 1970’s and 80’s ~ Introduction and diffusion of high-yield seeds and the expanded use of fertilizers
    • High-Yield Seeds: Dr. Norman Borlaug produces: “miracle wheat and rice”: hardier, more fertilizer respondent plants
    • Result: 1) agricultural productivity increased faster than population growth, 2) shifted production from subsistence to commercial farming, 3) Positive impact in all regions of Asia and in Mexico
problem production costs
Problem: Production Costs
  • Fertilizer indispensible for these seeds
  • Nitrogen most important ingredient
    • Cheapest way to get this is processing natural gas or petroleum
    • Other important elements for fertilizers are not evenly distributed in the world
    • Tractors, irrigation pumps, etc necessary for production
  • What problems does this create? (article)
1 oceans
1. Oceans
  • Oceans make up3/4 of earth surface
  • Endless source of food?
    • Problem: overfishing ~ depleted ½ of fish supplies (cannot reproduce as fast)
    • Tried to solve by providing fishing rights to countries. What was this treaty called?
2 higher protein cereals
2. Higher-Protein Cereals
  • Trying to create hybrid seed grains with higher protein content to increase nutrition in LDCs where meat consumption is low
  • Another option is to fortify the cereals with protein filled amino acids during production. Why might fortification not be applicable in the LDCs?…hint think their usual agricultural practices.
3 improved palatability of rarely consumed foods
3. Improved Palatability of Rarely Consumed Foods
  • Encourage consumption of foods usually avoided due to social reasons
    • What are these called?
  • Examples: soy products,
  • Increase food supply by exporting the surplus crops of one country to another in need
    • US: Leading Exporter of corn and wheat since the Agricultural, Trade, and Assistance Act of 1954
    • Thailand #1 producer of rice
case study africa
Case Study: Africa
  • Asia: population growth declining, green revolution keeps food production above these numbers
    • Result Asia remains self-sufficient
  • Sub-Saharan Africa: Population increasing 6 fold, food only 3 times
    • Especially Somalia, Ethiopia, and Sudan
    • Over exhausted, non fertile soil, drought
    • Price Ceilings make profits impossible, no incentive to farm
  • How is the “Second Green Revolution Helping? Article: