Fixed-term WORK IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND SOCIAL IMPACTS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fixed-term WORK IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND SOCIAL IMPACTS

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  1. Fixed-term WORK IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND SOCIAL IMPACTS Martin Fritz European Data Laboratory for Comparative Social Research (EUROLAB), GESIS, Cologne

  2. Current trends in the world of (flexible) work - a sociological perspective De-standardization, De-regulation, Flexibilization, Expansion of Non-Standard Employment wage-labourbasedFordismassocial/employmentstandard finance-driven Post-Fordism Innovations (ICT), Globalization, Policydecisions, Value change Will therebe a newsociallyinclusiveemploymentstandard? Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  3. EU Directives to establish this new socially inclusive employment standard: • The European Social Partners ETUC, UNICE and CEEP developed a framework agreement on fixed-term work put into effect by COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/70/EC : • purpose: to improve the quality of fixed-term work • by a) applying the principle of non-discrimination and b) measures to prevent abuse •  What are the social differences between fixed-term and permanent work, so that there is a need for non-discrimination? • What social problems are caused by fixed-term work? • How can social inclusion be achieved? Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  4. EU Directive on fixed-term work From the preamble of COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/70/EC : “They [the social partners] also recognize that fixed-term employment contracts respond, in certain circumstances, to the needs of both employers and workers.” ?  Why should employees prefer to have a fixed-term rather than a permanent contract? Or does this mean they prefer it over being unemployed? Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  5. What Sociologists think: flexploitation The rise in fixed-termworkhasobjectiveandsubjective, individual andsocietalconsequences: loss of solidarity precarity corrosion of character In-work Poverty Inequality Anxieties about future anomie Depressions feelings of replaceability growing distrust Insecurity chains of uncertainty loss of long-term orientation Zygmunt Bauman Pierre Bourdieu Richard Sennett Ulrich Beck Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  6. Incidence of fixed-term/temporary employment in Europe (in % of all employees, 15-74 years), source: Eurostat ImplementationofDirective99/70/EC on fixed-termemployment Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  7. What is behind this slowly rising overall trend and the country differences? • 1. Who is doing fixed-term work? • groups that are relatively new on the labour markets: very young and older persons and women? • or vulnerable workers who can‘t find other job? •  social structure of fixed-term work: gender, age and education • 2. What changes occuredwithin the social structure of fixed-term workers in the last years? • does it become more gendered, are increasingly young people holding fixed-term contracts or more and more the low-skilled? •  looking at trends Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  8. Compositionoffixed-termwork: gender, ageandeducation, source: Eurostat Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  9. Changes in the socio-demographic composition of fixed-term employment from 1998-2008 (%), source: Eurostat Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  10. Social Problems of Fixed-term Work • 2 Examples: • Povertyaseconomicinsecurity • Anomie atcountrylevel Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  11. Poverty rates for permanent and temporary work, 27 European countries, 18-64yrs Source: vanLancker 2013, based on EU-SILC 2008 data Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  12. Extracts from multilevel logistic regressions on the risk of poverty (odds ratios) Source: vanLancker 2013, based on EU-SILC 2008 data * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001. Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  13. Extracts from Correspondence Analyses on anomie and non-standard employment at country level Source: Fritz 2013 Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  14. Extracts from Correspondence Analyses on anomie and non-standard employment at country level Source: Fritz 2013 Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe

  15. Conclusions • Fixed-termworkisespeciallyproblematicfor: families, lowereducatedpersonsand in countries withdominanceof male breadwinner model, i.e. South European countries • DIRECTIVE 1999/70/EC on fixed-term work does not solve this problems, thus it doesn’t contribute to a new socially inclusive employment standard • otherformsof flexible work (aspart-time work) cancontributemoreto a newstandardas also socialpolicymeasureslikeminimumincomesandwages etc. whichprotectespeciallythemost vulnerable • More information in ourbook: • Max Koch & Martin Fritz „Non-Standard Employment in Europe. Paradigms, PrevalenceandPolicy Responses.“ Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe