© Malcolm G Stephen 2004. sunflower oil coconut oil. cod liver oil whale oil. lard suet. Naturally occurring. Animal fat. Vegetable oil. Marine oil. Fats and oils are built from an alcohol with three -O-H groups . glycerol. Systematic name is propane-1,2,3-triol.
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cod liver oil
Systematic name is propane-1,2,3-triol
Systematic name is octadecanoic acid
Fats and oils are ESTERS of glycerol and long chain carboxylic acids
The structural formula shown above suggests that the fat
molecule is shaped like an E, but the molecule is actually
shaped more like this-
Stearic acid in beef fat
notice that with only C-C bonds the molecule is “straight”
Oils have some C=C bonds in the carboxylic acids from which they are made.
Oleic acid in olive oil
notice that the shape of the molecule is distorted by the C=C bond
Fat molecules pack together tightly, making fats solid at room temperature.
Double bonds in oil make the molecule less compact.
Less tightly packed molecules make oils liquid.
This is done by addition of hydrogen (hydrogenation) using a nickel catalyst.