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League of Nations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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League of Nations

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  1. League of Nations History 12 Ms Leslie

  2. The 14th Point • Wilson’s 14th Point was to create a League of Nations • Lloyd George and Clemenceau were not so excited about it • All treaties had a ‘Covenant of the League’ clause - binding all participants to the League • Starts Jan 1920 in Geneva, Switzerland

  3. The goals • Replace the need for war • Debate instead of battle • Supposed to be global but USA refused to join so it was mostly European • Limitations on armaments • Oversee that the treaties were carried out • Everyone to respect each other’s borders • Economic sanctions/embargos before armed force

  4. Levels of Governance • The Assembly • Had a representative from each member

  5. The Council • Permanent members from the great powers • Britain, France, Italy and Japan were the first

  6. The Secretariat • Permanent staff

  7. Permanent Court of Justice • 15 Judges in the Hague • To solve disputes between countries • Both sides had to agree they would accept the verdict before appearing

  8. Committees and Commissions • Dealt with specific issues • Like the Mandate Commission • The International Labour Organization to help union rights/wages/working conditions

  9. The USA • Senate voted no on joining • Had adopted a policy of Isolationism • Refused to get entangled in Europe’s problems • Never signed Treaty of Versailles

  10. Russia • Not allowed to be a member as the world did not recognize Lenin’s Communists as the lawful government • Russia did not sign any treaties either

  11. Germany • Not allowed to be a member of the league • Could not be trusted after ‘causing’ the war • None of the defeated nations allowed to join

  12. Germant Con’t • In 1920 there were 42 members • In 1924 there were 55 • But still needed support from larger powers as smaller nations could not keep the peace • No one in the position to defend anyone else after WWI

  13. Successes • Helped territory disputes in Finland and Sweden and Turkey and Iraq • Corfu Incident 1923 Greeks in Greece attacked 5 Italian officers. So Mussolini attacked and occupied Greek Island of Corfu. Greece pleaded to the LoN. Result: Italy to leave Corfu and Greece paying for death of Italians.

  14. failures • Manchurian Crisis 1931-39 • Japan invaded the Chinese territory of Manchuria • The League condemned Japan’s Actions • Japan refused to withdraw from China and instead dropped out of the League and invaded more of China • France and Britain did not want to go to war with Japan

  15. Abyssinia/Ethiopia • Mussolini saw how easy it was fro Japan • He invades Abyssinia in 1935 • League put sanctions on Italy but not on fuel • Britain refused to help even though British Africa surrounded Abyssinia • Italy then controlled 2/3 of Abyssinia • Resulted in the 1936 Rome-Berlin pact as Hitler refused to obey sanctions

  16. Why did the league fail? • Not having the support of the USA, the world’s greatest power • France and Britain were too scared to start another war • Other great powers were not allowed to join (Russia and Germany) • No military force to enforce it’s military sanctions • Had no back bone to stand up to Hitler (broke the very treaty it was supposed to protect

  17. All done