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Vertebrate Zoology: Chapter 1. The diversity, Classification and Evolution of vertebrates. Diversity. Numerous & diverse More than 50, 000 species Range in size from small fishes (0.5 g) to full mature whales (>100 000 kg) Habitats vary Deep oceans to top of the highest mountains.

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vertebrate zoology chapter 1

Vertebrate Zoology: Chapter 1

The diversity, Classification and Evolution of vertebrates

diversity
Diversity
  • Numerous & diverse
  • More than 50, 000 species
  • Range in size from small fishes (0.5 g) to full mature whales (>100 000 kg)
  • Habitats vary
    • Deep oceans to top of the highest mountains
diversity3
DIVERSITY
  • Feeding Behavior
    • Obtain energy from food they eat
    • Complex and vary extensively
    • Carnivores eat other animals and catch they prey in various ways
      • Some search for prey
      • Some wait in hiding for their prey
      • Some pursue their prey at high speeds
      • Some swallow prey while it is still alive and struggling to kill itself
      • Snakes inject toxins that paralyze the prey
      • All cats kill prey with a distinctive bite on the neck
diversity4
DIVERSITY
  • Herbivores eat plant materials
  • Developed some specializations
    • Well sculptured teeth
    • Digestive tracts with special places for bacteria that digest some of the plant materials e.g. cellulose
diversity5
DIVERSITY
  • Reproduction: necessary for survival and continuity
  • Great diversity WRT mating and courtship
  • In general males court females
  • Females care for the young
  • Male female roles reversed for some animals
  • Modes of reproduction vary from egg laying to live births
diversity6
DIVERSITY
  • Parental Care
    • Some babies self sufficient: precocial young (fish and amphibians)
    • Others require extended periods of parental care (humans)
diversity types of vertebrates
DIVERSITY: Types of Vertebrates
  • Hagfishes (Myxinoidea)
    • Long and slender & pinkish
    • produce large quantities of sticky slime
    • Almost blind
    • Jawless (Agnatha)
    • No trace of vertebrae (backbone)
    • Marine and parasitic, also scavenge
diversity types of vertebrates8
DIVERSITY: Types of Vertebrates
  • Lampreys (Petromyzontoidea):
    • Jawless
    • Both marine and freshwater
    • Round mouth
    • Rudimenatry vertebrae
    • Scaleless fishes
    • Slimy, no internal hard tissue
    • Larva is called ammocoetes
chondrichthyes sharks rays and ratfishes
Chondrichthyes: Sharks, rays and ratfishes
  • All classified as chondrichthyes (Chondro= cartilage, ichthyes = fish
  • All lack true bone, have a cartilage skeleton
  • Only teeth and vertebrae are sometimes calcified
  • Jawed fish
  • Some sharks are small <=15 cm, others are large. Largest is 10m
  • Rays live on bottom of water bodies and tend to have flat bodies
  • Broad fins used for swimming
  • Ratfishes are long with slender tails
osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
  • Bony fishes; very diverse
  • Bone skeleton
  • Numerous vertebrae
  • Dermal scales on skin, skin has mucus glands
  • Jaws are present
  • Divided into major groups
osteichthyes11
Osteichthyes
  • Lobe Finned fishes (fleshy finned)
    • Also called sarcopterygians
    • Only eight species
  • Ray Finned Fishes
    • Fins appear like webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines
    • More than 20 000 species, dominant aquatic vertebrates (from deep seas to freshwater streams and ponds)
    • Major source of food for people
osteichthyes12
Osteichthyes
  • 2 groups of Actinopterygians:
    • The chondrostei
      • Bichis, sturgeons, paddlefishes
      • Sturgeons are the source of carvia
      • Paddlefish have a paddle-like snout and found in Mississippi river
    • Neopterygians
      • More modern
      • Include the teleostei group with more than 20 000 species
      • Familiar teleosts are trout, bass, salmon, panfish, sole swordfish, salmon and tuna
amphibians salamanders frogs and caecillians
AMPHIBIANS: Salamanders, Frogs and Caecillians
  • Aquatic larval form (e.g tadpoles)
  • Terrestrial adult form
  • Bare skin, lack scales, hair, or feathers
  • Three orders
amphibians salamanders frogs and caecillians14
AMPHIBIANS: Salamanders, Frogs and Caecillians
  • Salamanders/Urodela
    • Elongated animals, terrestrial, usually with four legs; Have tails as adults
  • Frogs (Anurans): Frogs, toads, treefrogs
    • Short bodies, no tails as adults; Large heads
    • Large hind legs (walking, jumping, climbing)
  • Caecilians
    • are an order of legless amphibian.
    • most have no tail, also called rubber eels
    • Burrowing animals
turtles
Turtles
  • Turtles are easily distinguished by the presence of a shell which encloses the animal in a bony case.
  • Turtles inhabit a variety of terrestrial and aquatic environments, from the open ocean to the arid deserts.
  • Shoulders and hips are inside the ribs
  • Unique animals
tuatara lizards snakes
Tuatara, Lizards, Snakes
  • Skins is covered with scales
  • Tuatara
    • Small nearly extinct order of very unusual lizard-like reptiles know as the beaked reptiles. Have unique features such as a third eyelid.
    • All living species found in New Zealand
  • Lizards: > 4000 species
  • Snakes: > 2700 species
alligators and crocodiles
Alligators and Crocodiles
  • Semi aquatic predators, same lineage as dinosaurs
  • Long snouts with numerous teeth
  • Skins contains bones (osteoderms) beneath the scales
  • Care for their young
birds aves
BIRDS: AVES
  • Lineage of dinosaurs
  • Characterized by flight, and feathered wings.
  • > 9000 species
  • Very active during the day, great vocals!!
mammals
Mammals
  • >4500 species
  • Mostly eutherians (placental animals): show placentation and long gestation
  • Marsupials, placentation to a small extend, very short gestation. Give birth to very immature young that would then grow in the external pouch (kangaroo)
  • Marsupials are mostly in Australia( Kangaroos, Koalas, and wombarts)
  • Some marsupials hatch young from eggs instead: the platypus and the echidnas from australia
vertebrate classification terms
Vertebrate Classification: terms
  • Books classifies vertebrate from an evolutionary standpoint
  • Phylogenetics: used to classify vertebrates
    • This is a field of biology that deals with relationships between organisms. It includes the discovery of these relationships and the study of the causes behind this pattern
phylogeny
Phylogeny
  • The evolutionary relationships among organisms, patterns of lineage branching produced by the true evolutionary history of the organisms being considered
cladistics
Cladistics
  • Phylogenies are proposed thru a process called cladistics or phylogenetic systematics
  • It attempts to produce a hypothesis about the evolutionary sequences of events that led to a group of organisms
  • Each group of organisms is called a clade
  • Its makes use of shared derived characters
clade
Clade
  • Phylogenetic lineage originating from a common ancestor
  • It is a group of organisms which include the most recent common ancestor of all its organisms and all the descendents of that common and recent ancestor
  • Comes from the Greek word Clado meaning twig or branch
derived character
Derived Character
  • Modified version of the primitive condition of that character. Thus the character has changed from its ancestral condition
  • Presence of hair is a primitive character state of all mammals, whereas the hairlessness of whales is a derived state for one subclade within mammals
  • Also called apomorphy (apo = away from, morph = form)
shared derived character
Shared Derived Character
  • A character derived from the ancestral conditions and is shared among several taxa that all descended from a common ancestor that first exhibited the derived character.
  • E.g. foot bones(tarsals, carpals, digits) of terrestrial vertebrates: Bones not seen in ancestral pattern seen in lobe finned fishes.
  • Also called synapomorphy (syn = together)
  • Apomorphy: means derived character
primitive character
Primitive Character
  • All called Plesiomorphy
    • Inherited characters seen in ancestors of a clade. Not derived
    • Original condition of that character within the clade under consideration
    • Presence of hair is a primitive character
    • Hairlessness is a derived state for one subclade of mammals -whales
shared primitive character
Shared Primitive Character
  • A character that is the same as the ancestral condition and is shared among several taxa
  • These carry no information WRT phylogeny of the organisms under study
  • All called sympleisomorphy
cladograms
Cladograms
  • Hypothesised phylogenies from cladistics: Cladograms are diagrams showing animal branches during evolution
  • It’s a hypothesis about a group of animals
  • Subject to change as more data is available or re-evaluated
    • Cladograms are not truths
cladograms29
Cladograms
  • Evlutionary relationship between humans and great apes
    • Some cladograms show humans as the sister taxon to the chimpanzees
    • Others show show gorilla as the sister taxon
  • Thus a cladogram is a hypothesis that like any other hypothesis or theory in science is subject to change as more data are accumulated
  • See figure 1.2: study the cladogram and understand the data.
other cladistics terminology
Other cladistics terminology
  • Taxa: Groups of organisms of same species or different species
  • Clades: groups of organisms in a cladogram
  • Monophyletic groups. Groups of organisms which contain the common ancestor plus all descendents (e.g. mammalia is a monophyletic group (clade) as it contains all living and extinct mammals plus the ancestor of all mammals
other cladistics terminology31
Other cladistics terminology
  • Paraphyletic
    • Groups that do not contain the common ancestor