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Unit 16 English Idioms. 1. Characteristics of idioms 1) Semantic unity

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Unit 16

English Idioms


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1. Characteristics of idioms

1) Semantic unity

    Each idiom is a semantic unity. The semantic unity can be reflected by the fact that the meaning of an idiom is very often not the total sum of the meanings of the constituent words. The semantic unity can aslo be shown in the illogical relations between the literal meanings of the consitituent words and the meaning of the idiom.


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2) Structural stability

    Structural stability means that the structure of an idiom usually remains unchangible. In other words, the constituent components of an idiom can not, generally speaking, be replaced.


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2. Classification of idioms

1)Idioms norminal in nature: 

    They function as nouns in a sentence:

white elephant

brain trust

Jack of all trades


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2)Idioms adjectival in nature

   They function as adjectives in a sentence.

cut and dried

wide of the mark

up in the air


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3)Idioms verbal in nature

   They function as verbs in a sentence.

put down to

turn on

get away with


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4)Idioms adverbial in nature

    They function as adverbials in a sentence:

tooth and nail

in nothing flat

through thick and thin


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5)Sentence idioms

    Such idioms are usually in complete sentential form. They are usally proverbs or sayings.

Never do things by halves.

All is not gold that glitters.


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  • 3.Use of idioms

  • Stylistic features

  • Different idioms show different stylistic meanings. Some are casual, others formal, still others neural in style. The same idiom may show stylistic differences when denoting different meanings.


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2)Rhetorical features

(1)Phonetic manipulation

   a. alliteration such as "chop and change"

b. rhyme such as "toil and moil"


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(2)Lexical manipulation

a. reiteration, which means the duplication of synonyms such as "chop and change"




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  • (3) Figures of speech such as "day and night"

  • simile:  as proud as a peacock

  • as mute as a fish

  • as proud as a peacock

  • as graceful as a swan


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b. metaphor: white elephant such as "day and night"

black sheep

dark horse

wet blanket


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c. metonymy: velvet glove such as "day and night"

in the cradle

live by one’


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d. synecdoche: earn one's bread such as "day and night"

fall into good hands


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e. personification: such as "day and night"

Failure is the mother of success

Actions speak louder than words.

The pot calls the cattle black.


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4. Variations of idioms such as "day and night"

1)addition:

"in good condition" from "in condition"


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2) deletion: such as "day and night"

"the last straw" from "It is the last straw that breaks the camel's back."


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3) position-shifting: such as "day and night"

"The Johnsons keep up with sb" from "keep up with the Johnsons"


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4) replacement: such as "day and night"

"wash one's clean linen in public" from "wash one's dirty linen in public"

Idioms are terse, vivid and expressive.


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