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Understanding Practice: Video as a Medium for Reflection and Design Lucy A. Suchman & Randall H. Trigg In ‘ Design at Work ’ , Greenbaum and Kyng, pp. 65-89, 1991 Presented by Sung Won Lee http://people.cs.tamu.edu/sungwon/671.html What is this paper about?

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understanding practice video as a medium for reflection and design

Understanding Practice:Video as a Medium for Reflection and Design

Lucy A. Suchman & Randall H. Trigg

In ‘Design at Work’, Greenbaum and Kyng, pp. 65-89, 1991

Presented by Sung Won Lee


what is this paper about
What is this paper about?
  • The value of using video when performing ethnographic studies
  • Ethnography : the study and systematic recording of human cultures; also : a descriptive work produced from such research(from m-w.com)
work as situated activity
Work as Situated Activity
  • Work : a form of situated activity in the design of new technology

-development of the artifacts and

development of work practice

-work/technology relation

  • Sample study - Routine Trouble in an Airline Operations Room

-complex sheet


-need new methods for understanding work

practice in detail

work practice and design
Work Practice and Design
  • Sociality

-community rather than the individual

  • Closeness of designers to users

-design from a distance

-> gap between scenarios and

actual circumstances

ethnography and interaction analysis
Ethnography and Interaction Analysis
  • Ethnography

- traditional method of social and cultural anthropology

- careful study of activities and relations

  • Interaction Analysis

- detailed investigation of the interaction of people with the material environment

- focus on joint definition and accomplishment of the work

what we record
What we record
  • Setting-oriented records
  • Person-oriented records
  • Object-oriented records
  • Task-oriented records
how we work as researchers
How we work as researchers
  • First - a rough content log of the entire videotape

- issue-based logging

  • Careful transcription

- detailed sequential analyses (focus on non-vocal interaction)

  • Interaction analysis

- uncover the regularity and efficacy

  • Video-based interaction analysis

- A powerful corrective to our tendency to see

in a scene what we expect to see

  • Time consuming and labor intensive, but worthy
reflection and design
Reflection and Design


Appreciation for

Current practice






Future Visions



Design scenarios,

Prototype Evaluation

points discuss
Points / Discuss
  • Video allows to see the action repeatedly.
  • Participants usually do not perceive information that is obvious to them and their recollection of events is not very accurate.
  • Video promotes the analysis and understanding of the situation, to proceed with a fast prototype and return to the analysis and understanding of the new situation.
  • What is the applicability in the industry?

Doesn’t it require too much time?

lucy a suchman
Lucy A. Suchman
  • Professor, Anthropology of Science and Technology

Department of Sociology, Lancaster University, UK

  • awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science and elected to the Academy of ACM SIGCHI in 2002
  • 1979-2000 researcher at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, most recently as a Principal Scientist and manager of the Work Practice and Technology area, a multidisciplinary research group
  • Ph.D. in Social/Cultural Anthropology

from the University of California at Berkeley in 1984

recent publications
Recent publications
  • 2002 (with R. Trigg and J. Blomberg) Working Artefacts: Ethnomethods of the prototype.British Journal of Sociology Vol. 53, No. 2:163-179.
  • 2002 Practice-based design of information systems: Notes from the hyperdeveloped World.The Information Society, 18:1-6.
  • 2001 Building Bridges: Practice-based ethnographies of contemporary technology. In Schiffer, M. (Ed.) Anthropological Perspectives on Technology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, pp. 163-177.
  • 2000 Making A Case: "Knowledge" and "Routine" work in document production. In Luff, P., Hindmarsh, J. and Heath, C. Work, Interaction and Technology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 29-45.
  • 2000 Suchman, L. and Bishop, L. Problematizing "Innovation" as a Critical Project. Technology and Strategic Management Volume 12 (1):327-333.
  • 2000 Organizing Alignment: A case of bridge-building. Organization, Vol. 7 (2):311-327.
  • 2000 Embodied Practices of Engineering Work. Mind, Culture & Activity, 7(1&2): 4-18.
  • 1999 (with J. Blomberg, J. Orr, and R. Trigg) Reconstructing Technologies as Social Practice. In P. Lyman and N. Wakeford (Eds.) .) Special issue of the American Behavioral Scientist on Analysing Virtual Societies: New Directions in Methodology, Vol. 43, No. 3, November/December, pp. 392-408.
  • 1999 Working Relations of Technology Production and Use. In Mackenzie, D. and Wajcman, J. (Eds.) The Social Shaping of Technology, Second Edition. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press, pp. 258-265.
  • 1999 (with J. Finley, J. Muse, J. Blomberg, S. Newman and R. Trigg) O Night Without Objects. In C. Harris (Ed.) Art and Innovation: The Xerox PARC Artist-in-Residence Program. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 46-101.
  • 1998 Human/Machine Reconsidered. Cognitive Studies Vol. 5, No. 1, March, pp. 5-13.
  • 1997 Centers of Coordination: A case and some themes. In Resnick, L. B., Säljö, R., Pontecorvo, C., & Burge, B. (Eds.) Discourse, Tools, and Reasoning: Essays on Situated Cognition. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 41-62.
  • 1997 (with J. Blomberg and R. Trigg) Back to Work: Renewing Old Agendas for Cooperative Design. In M. Kyng and L. Mathiassen (Eds.) Computers and Design in Context. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 268-287.
  • 1997 The Social and Interactional Dimensions of Human-Computer Interfaces, Peter J. Thomas (Ed.), reviewed in the American Anthropologist Vol. 99, No. 3, pp. 660-661.
  • 1996 (with J. Blomberg and R. Trigg) Reflections on a Work-Oriented Design Project. Human-Computer Interaction, Volume 11, pp. 237-265.
randall h trigg
Randall H. Trigg
  • Ph.D. in Computer Science, University of Maryland, 1983.
  • 1999 -
  • Participatory Design consultant at the Global Fund for Women,
  • a non-profit that supports international groups working for
  • women’s human rights.
  • 1992 - 1999
  • Research scientist, Work Practice & Technology groupXerox Palo Alto Research Center Research in
  • ethnographically-influenced participatory/cooperative design,
  • tailorable system design, open hypermedia.
  • 1989 - 1992
  • Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, Aarhus
  • University.
  • Research in participatory design and system development,
  • hypermedia, tailorable systems and open architectures.
  • 1984 - July 1989
  • Researcher, Xerox Corporation Researcher on the Workplace
  • project. Co-design and implementation of the Activity
  • Representation Tool to support the work of video-based interaction analysis.
Trigg, R. H. (2000). From Sandbox to "Fundbox": Weaving participatory design into the fabric of a busy non-profit. Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference (PDC 2000). T. Cherkasky, J. Greenbaum, P. Mambrey, J. K. Pors (eds.). Palo Alto, CA, USA: Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR). 174-183. Grønbæk, K., & Trigg, R. H. (1999). From web to workplace: Designing open hypermedia systems. MIT Press.
  • Trigg, R. H., Blomberg, J., & Suchman, L. (1999). Moving document collections online: The evolution of a shared repository. Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW'99). S. Bødker, M. Kyng, K. Schmidt (eds.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. 331-350.
  • Suchman, L., Blomberg, J., Orr, J. E., & Trigg, R. (1999). Reconstructing technologies as social practice. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(3), 392-408.
  • Trigg, R. H. (1996). Hypermedia as integration: Recollections, reflections and exhortations. Keynote address: Hypertext '96 Conference, Washington, DC.
  • Blomberg, J., Suchman, L., & Trigg, R. (1996). Reflections on a Work-Oriented Design Project. Human-Computer Interaction, 11(3), 237-265. Earlier version appeared in R. Trigg, S. I. Anderson, & E. Dykstra-Erickson (Eds.), Proceedings of Participatory Design Conference (PDC'94). Palo Alto, CA, October. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, P.O. Box 717, Palo Alto, CA 94302-0717, 99-109.
  • Grønbæk, K., & Trigg, R. H. (1996). Toward a Dexter-based model for open hypermedia: Unifying embedded references and link objects. In Proceedings of Hypertext'96. Washington, DC, March 10-14. ACM Press, 149-160.
  • Blomberg, J., Suchman, L., & Trigg, R. (1995). Back to Work: Renewing Old Agendas for Cooperative Design. In Proceedings of Third Decennial Conference on Computers in Context: Joining Forces in Design. Aarhus, Denmark, August 14-18.
  • Trigg, R. H., & Bødker, S. (1994). From implementation to design: Tailoring and the emergence of systematization in CSCW. In R. Furuta & C. Neuwirth (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'94). New York: ACM Press, 45-54.
  • Grønbæk, K., & Trigg, R. H. (1994). Design issues for a Dexter- based hypermedia system. Communications of the ACM, 37(2), 40-49.
  • Suchman, L., & Trigg, R. (1993). Artificial Intelligence as Craftwork. In S. Chaiklin & J. Lave (Eds.), Understanding Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press, 144-178.
  • Suchman, L., & Trigg, R. H. (1991). Understanding Practice: Video as a Medium for Reflection and Design. In J. Greenbaum & M. Kyng (Eds.), Design at Work: Cooperative Design of Computer Systems. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 65-89.
  • Trigg, R. H. (1991). From trailblazing to guided tours: The legacy of Vannevar Bush's vision of hypertext use. In P. D. Kahn & J. Nyce (Eds.), From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind's Machine. Academic Press.
  • Trigg, R. H. (1988). Guided Tours and Tabletops: Tools for Communicating in a Hypertext Environment. In Proceedings of ACM CSCW'88 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. New York: ACM Press, 216-226.
  • Trigg, R. H., & Irish, P. M. (1987). Hypertext Habitats: Experiences of Writers in NoteCards. In ACM Hypertext'87 Proceedings. New York: ACM Press, 89-108.
  • Trigg, R. H., Moran, T. P., & Halasz, F. G. (1987). Adaptability and Tailorability in NoteCards. In Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'87: Human-Computer Interaction , 723-728.
  • Trigg, R. H. (1983). A Network-Based Approach to Text Handling for the Online Scientific Community. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Maryland (University Microfilms #8429934), November.