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The Problems Confronting the Roman Catholic Church Before the Protestant Reformation. This detail of a fresco (1481–82) by Pietro Perugino in the Sistine chapel shows Jesus giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter.

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The Problems Confronting the Roman Catholic Church Before the Protestant Reformation

This detail of a fresco (1481–82) by Pietro Perugino in the Sistine chapel shows Jesus giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter.

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Corruption in the ChurchInnocent VIII (1484-1492)Illegitimate ChildrenSale of Religious Offices and Dispensations (Exemption from Law of the Church)Leo X Sold more than 2,000 Ecclesiastical OfficesSale of IndulgencesPluralismNepotismSuperstitious Veneration of RelicsLack of Education of Lower Clergy

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Popes Acted Like Secular PrincesPhilip IV and Boniface VIIIPhilip Levied Tax on French Clergy Without Obtaining Papal ConsentPhilip Tried and CondemnedBoniface Reminded Philip of People’s Jurisdiction Over Kings (UnamSanctam)

Estates General Repudiated Boniface

Excommunicated Philip

Boniface AttackedDied Three Weeks LaterClement V (1305-1314) Never Left FranceAvignon Residence (1309-1377)

Councilor Theory—Council Not the Pope

Boniface VIII

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Augustianism

Theology for the Age of Chaos Following the Breakup of the Classical WorldFatalism and OtherworldlinessMercy of Forces Beyond Their ControlTimes Improve Pessimistic Philosophy Should be ReplacedMeasure of PrideFunction of the Ordinary Church Were Practically UnnecessaryPredestinationPeter Lombard and St. Thomas AquinasFreedom of WillChoose Good and Avoid EvilCould Not Make Choice Unaided

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Historians Agree Abuses were not Primary Cause of Protestant ReformationMedieval CatholicismCatholics Agitated For ReformToo Late

Medieval TheologyElaborate Sacramental TheoryGood Works to Supplement FaithDivine Authority in Hands of PriestsPauline Epistles—Omnipotent GodHuman Nature is Hopelessly DepravedMan Absolutely Dependent on GodGrace to Keep Him from SinDestined to Inherit Eternal Life

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Without Heavenly Grace Man would Fall Into SinNecessary to Receive the SacramentsIndispensable Means for Communicating the Grace of God to Man

Three Most Important for People:

Baptism Wiped the Stain of Previous Sin – Any Christian Could Baptize

Penance Absolved the Contrite Sinner From Guilt

Eucharist Renewed the Saving Grace of Christ’s Sacrifice on the CrossPriest Needed for Other SacramentsKeys for Apostle PeterNew Theology Never Universally AcceptedNew Theology Strengthened the Priesthood

Reformers Wanted to Return to a More Primitive Christianity

Chartres Cathedral

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Doctrine or Practice Not Expressly Sanctioned in the Scriptures or by the Fathers of the Church Were

Condemned the Theory of the PriesthoodCondemned the Sacramental System of the ChurchWorship of the VirginBelief in PurgatoryInvocation of SaintsVeneration of RelicsRule of Celibacy

Reformers Stressed the Dogma of Original SinTotal Depravity of ManPredestinationBondage of the Will

Reims Cathedral

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Decline of Respect for the PapacyBabylonian Captivity and Great SchismTwo Popes (France and Rome) Great SchismInfluence of the MysticsMystics were Opposed to the Ritualistic Route to SalvationExtinction of Selfish DesiresAbsolute Surrender to GodNo Sacraments or Priestly Miracles Would be NecessaryFaith and Deep Emotional PietyJohn Wycliffe Denounced the Immorality of the ClergyCondemned IndulgencesCondemned the Temporal Power of the ChurchMarriage for the ClergySupreme Authority of the ScripturesDenied TransubstantiationStudents From Oxford Traveled to the EastJohn Huss Burned at the Stake in 1415

John WycliffeLollard Movement FounderAnticlerical Biblically-centered Reforms

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Growth of National Consciousness

in Northern EuropeRise of the Absolute MonarchsViewed the Pope as a ForeignerNo Right to Meddle in Local AffairsStatutes of Provisors—Prohibited Appointments by the Pope to Church OfficesStatute of Praemunire—Forbade Appeal of Cases from English Courts to RomeFrench Pragmatic Sanctions Practically Abolished all Papal Authority in France

Preparation for the Burning of John Huss in Prague

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Ambitious PrincesAbsolute Authority Resulted in Conflict With RomeRevival of Roman LawDoctrine that People Had Delegated All of Their Power to the Secular Ruler

Temporal Power of Pope Transferred to the King

Economic ReasonsRuling Groups Greedy for WealthWealth of the ChurchPapal TaxationVast Economic Empire

John Huss; Charles University in Prague; Some of his Followers Formed the Moravian Church

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Portable Wealth1/3 of Land in Germany1/5 of Land in FranceGifts from Pious CitizensNo Taxing of Church PropertyPeter’s Pence an Annual Levy on Every HouseholdTax in Addition to the TitheIndulgences, Dispensations, Appeals of Judicial DecisionsSale of Church OfficesFirst Year’s Income of Every Bishop and Priest

Painting of John Huss at the Council of Constance. The Council of Constance was called to end the Schism Caused by the Avignon Papacy. At the time the Council was called there were three Popes, Benedict XIII, Gregory XII, and John XXIII