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The National Companion Animal Surveillance Program A Partnership of Banfield Pet Hospitals & Purdue University AAVMC/ASPH Joint Symposium Atlanta, GA April 22-24, 2007 Larry Glickman, VMD, MPH, DrPH Professor Epidemiology & Environmental Medicine Purdue University School of

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slide1

The National Companion Animal Surveillance ProgramA Partnership of Banfield Pet Hospitals & Purdue University

AAVMC/ASPH Joint Symposium

Atlanta, GA

April 22-24, 2007

Larry Glickman, VMD, MPH, DrPH

Professor Epidemiology & Environmental Medicine

Purdue University School of

Veterinary Medicine

Supported by a $1.2 million dollar grant

from the CDC in 2003

surveillance cdc definition
Surveillance – CDC Definition
  • Ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data
  • Essential to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice
  • Closely integrated with the timely dissemination of these data to those who need to know
temporal sequence of surveillance
Temporal Sequence of Surveillance

Recovery

Agent

Signs & Symptoms (I & W)

Diagnostic Tests

Specific Diagnosis/Agent

Outcome

Death

Syndromic Surveillance

Exposure Surveillance

Traditional Surveillance

I & W = Indications & Warnings

biothreat a agents in dogs cats
Biothreat A Agents in Dogs & Cats

* - CDC 2003: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/agentlist-category.asp

** - reported with species of greatest (or equal) susceptibility first

the national companion animal surveillance program ncasp team
The National Companion Animal Surveillance Program (NCASP) Team
  • A joint effort of the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine with Banfield the Pet Hospital
  • Other participants at Purdue:
    • School Electrical & Computer Engineering
    • Cyber Center
    • Statistics Department
  • COMSYS (SAS Affiliate)
  • Antech Diagnostics
objectives of ncasp
Objectives of NCASP
  • Provide surveillance for syndromic and disease events in pet animals in the United States
    • Federal
    • State
  • Conduct statistical analyses to identify space-time clusters of events and risk factors (host, environment) for disease
  • Alert to the occurrence of potential acts of bioterrorism and emerging zoonoses
  • Characterize safety & efficacy of veterinary drugs and vaccines (pharmacoepidemiology)
  • Serve as a sentinel for environmental hazards for human and animal health
banfield the pet hospital
Banfield The Pet Hospital
  • Currently 620+ full service hospitals
    • 2 additional hospitals per week
  • Located in 44 states, Mexico, UK
  • >3.0 million patient visits yearly
  • ~ 10,000 patient visits daily
  • ~ 2-4% of U.S. pet population
  • Addresses geocoded & records electronic
slide8

Purdue University

Data Warehouse

Data Mining

National Companion Animal SurveillanceProgram

alert fayette county ga s own silent summer
Alert!!!Fayette County GA’s Own “Silent Summer”
  • Philips Services, Corp. emits noxious pesticide (Ethoprop) on May 29, 2006
  • 600 residents affected with clinical illness and reports of an onion-like odor
  • Dogs and cats are sick or dying with signs of vomiting, diarrhea, skin irritation, dyspnea
  • Purdue contacted Sept. 2 for help regarding acute & long-term health
    • Animals as sentinels for human health
    • Animal health
slide12
Persons Reported with At Least 2 Specified Symptoms by Week of Onset, Fayette & Fulton Counties, GA, May 1 – Aug 31, 2006

Specified symptoms: headache, nausea/vomiting, nosebleed, difficulty breathing, cough/sore throat, burning eyes (N=233)

slide13

Location of Fairburn, GA

Banfield Hospitals Near Fairburn, GA

Banfield Hospitals within 20-mile radius of Fairburn, GA

slide14

Banfield Dogs and Cats within 15-mile Radius of Chemical Plant in Fairburn, GA

Banfield Cats

n = 3,065

Banfield Dogs

n = 15,753

1129

288

Fairburn

Chemical Plant

281

Includes Banfield dogs and cats successfully geocoded for year 2005

eye inflammation in cats top and dogs bottom y axis distance from epicenter in miles
Eye Inflammation in Cats (top) and Dogs (bottom)Y Axis=Distance from Epicenter in Miles
syndromic spatial temporal clusters in fairburn ga in week following mercaptan release
Syndromic Spatial -Temporal Clusters in Fairburn, GA in Week Following Mercaptan Release

Eye Inflammation - Dogs (p<0.05)

Respiratory Syndrome - Dogs (p<0.05)

other published studies using ncasp
Other Published Studies Using NCASP
  • Pharmacoepidemiology
    • Safety and efficacy of heartworm preventives
    • Dog and cat vaccine adverse reactions
  • Animal diseases & infections
    • Parasitic infections of cats & risk factors
    • Prevalence of canine tick infestation & risk factors
    • Canine heartworm prevalence & risk factors
    • Leptospirosis epidemiology
    • Influenza illness in dogs and cats
  • Comparative medicine
    • Periodontal disease & chronic health conditions including renal and heart disease (in progress)
slide19

Proposed Flea/Tick Pathogen Surveillance

Vector ID

Pathogen ID

Medical Records

Ticks: Anaplasma sp, Babesia sp, Bartonella sp, Borrelia

lonestari, Erlichia sp, Francisella tularensis, Rickettsia sp

Fleas: Bartonella sp, Dipylidium caninum, Mycoplasma sp,

Rickettsia sp, Yersinia pestis

Web

Portal

slide23

Banfield, The Pet HospitalAtlanta, GA Metropolitan Area

Canine Tick Rate by Month

Canine Tick by Residence

slide27
Epidemiology Using Large Data Bases Can Produce the Evidence Required to Address Important Veterinary Clinical and Public Health Issues
leptospirosis
Leptospirosis
  • World-wide zoonotic disease
  • Gram negative bacteria
  • Spirochetes
  • Genus Leptospira
  • Over 250 serovars
slide29

Percent Positive* Leptospirosis (MAT Tests)

2002

2003

2004

* Positive ≥ 1:400

slide30

Allergic events following administration of a 4-way leptospirosis vaccine (breeds >5000 dogs)

JAVMA 2005;227:1102-1108.

slide32

27.3%

11.5%

slide34

Evidence from epidemiological studies using large clinical and laboratory data bases allows veterinarians to determine the risk of infection for pets in their area and to perform individualized risk assessments for vaccination or therapy.

the purdue banfield national companion national animal surveillance program
The Purdue-Banfield National CompanionNational Animal Surveillance Program
  • Moore, G., Ward M., Glickman N., Engler K., Lewis H., Glickman L.:  Incidence and risk factors for adverse events associated with distemper or rabies vaccine administration in pet ferrets, J. Amer Vet. Med. Assoc., 226:909-912, 2005.
  • Glickman, L., Glickman, N., Moore, G.: The safety profile of ProHeart 6 (moxidectin) and two oral heartworm preventives in dogs, Intl. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 3:49-61, 2005.
  • Moore, G., Frana, T., Guptill, L., Ward, M., Lewis, H., Glickman, L.:  Postmarketing surveillance for dog and cat vaccines: new resources in changing times, J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 227:1066-1068, 2005.
  • Moore, E., Guptill, L., Ward, M., Glickman, N., Faunt, K., Lewis, L., Glickman, L.: Adverse events diagnosed within three days of vaccination in pet dogs, J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 227:1102-1108, 2005.
  • Moore, G., Ward, M., Kulldorff, M., Caldanaro, R., Guptill, L., Lewis, H., Glickman, L.: A space-time cluster of adverse events associated with canine rabies vaccine, Vaccine, 23:5557-5562, 2005.
  • Moore, G., Guptill, L., Glickman, N., Caldanaro, R., Aucoin, D., Glickman, L.: Serologic prevalence of canine leptospirosis in the US, 2003-2005, Emerging Infect. Dis., 12:501-503, 2006
the purdue banfield national companion national animal surveillance program con t
The Purdue-Banfield National CompanionNational Animal Surveillance Program (con’t)
  • DeSantis-Kerr, A., Raghavan, M., Caldanaro, R., Glickman, N., Moore, G., Lewis, H., Glickman, L.: A national survey of nematode parasitism among pet cats in the United States, J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 228:885-892, 2006
  • Glickman, L., Moore, G., Glickman, N., Caldanaro, R., Aucoin, D., Lewis, H.: Purdue University-Banfield National Companion Animal Surveillance Program for emerging and zoonotic diseases. Vector-born Zoonotic Dis., 6:14-23, 2006.
  • DeSantis, A., Raghavan, M., Caldanaro, R., Glickman, N., Moore, G., Lewis, H., Glickman, L.: Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia and coccidian species of pet cats in 2003-2004, J. Feline Med. Surg., 8, 292-301, 2006
  • Glickman, L., Glickman, N., Moore, G., Lok, J., McCall, J., Lewis, H.: Comparative effectiveness of sustained-release moxidectin ((Proheart 6) and ivermectin (Heartgard Plus) for the prevention of heartworm infection in dogs in the United States, Intl. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med., 4:339-354,2007.
  • Raghavan, M., Glickman, N., Moore, G., Caldanaro, R., Lewis, H., Glickman, L.: Prevalence and risk factors for canine tick infestation in the United States, 2002-2004, Vector-born Zoonotic Dis., 7:65-75, 2007.
  • Moore, G., DeSantis-Kerr, A., Guptill, L., Glickman, N., Lewis, H., Glickman, L.: Adverse events following vaccine administration in cats, J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. (Accepted with revisions)