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Survey Research (Gallup). Would you vote for a qualified Black presidential candidate? 1958: 35% of Whites said yes. 1997: 93% of Whites said yes. Would you move away if large numbers of Blacks moved to your neighborhood? 1958: 80% of Whites said yes. 1997: 18% of Whites said yes.

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survey research gallup
Survey Research (Gallup)
  • Would you vote for a qualified Black presidential candidate?

1958: 35% of Whites said yes.

1997: 93% of Whites said yes.

  • Would you move away if large numbers of Blacks moved to your neighborhood?

1958: 80% of Whites said yes.

1997: 18% of Whites said yes.

terms
Terms
  • Prejudice: Negative feelings toward people based on their membership in certain groups.
  • Discrimination: Any behavior directed against people because of their membership in a particular group.
  • Racism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s racial background.
modern racism
Modern Racism
  • A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways especially when it is safe, socially acceptable and easy to rationalize.
  • Ambivalence
  • Avoidance
stereotypes
Stereotypes
  • Beliefs that associate a group of people with certain traits.
stereotypes and social perception
Stereotypes and Social Perception
  • Stereotypes can influence our perception and memory of events.
    • Perception: Basketball study (Stone et al., 1997)
    • Memory: Librarian vs. Waitress study (Cohen)
formation of stereotypes
Formation of Stereotypes
  • Social categorization- classification of people into groups based on common attributes.
    • Ingroups vs. outgroups
    • The outgroup homogeneity effect-tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups.
  • Sociocultural factors influence which categorizations we use.
formation and maintenance of stereotypes
Formation and Maintenance of Stereotypes
  • Illusory correlation- overestimation of the association between two variables (e.g., race and crime).
    • Example: Number of Business Relationships Harriet Has Been Exposed To In Her Life
formation and maintenance of stereotypes9
Formation and Maintenance of Stereotypes
  • Attributions

Group attribution error- tendency to assume valid judgments about individuals can be inferred from characteristics of the group.

  • Subtyping- revising stereotypes to incorporate exceptions.
  • Self-fulfilling prophecies
devine s dual process model
Devine’s Dual Process Model

No

Correction

ST

Activated

Prejudiced

Judgment

High

Prejudice:

Non-prejudiced

Judgment

ST

Activated

Correction

Low

Prejudice:

devine s dual process model cognitive load predictions
Devine’s Dual Process Model : Cognitive Load Predictions

No

Correction

ST

Activated

Prejudiced

Judgment

High

Prejudice:

Prejudiced

Judgment

ST

Activated

No

Correction

Low

Prejudice:

stereotype threat
Stereotype Threat
  • A situation in which one could be negatively stereotyped, judged or treated stereotypically, or in which one might conform to a negative stereotype
  • Effects:
    • 1) Lower Performance
    • 2) Disidentification
spencer steele quinn 1997
Spencer, Steele, & Quinn (1997)
  • Men outperform women on a difficult math test, but not on a literature test.
  • When the math test is presented as one that shows no gender differences, women perform equal to men.
  • This occurs even when all participants are led to expect poor performance.
steele aronson 1995
Steele & Aronson (1995)
  • When a test is described as an intelligence test, White students outperform Black students.
  • But when the same test is described as a laboratory problem solving test, Whites and Blacks perform equally well.
origins of prejudice
Origins of Prejudice
  • 1. Competition for scarce resources
    • Realistic group conflict theory (Worchel, 1977): rejection of other groups occurs during competition for scarce resources
    • Robber’s Cave Experiment (Sherif & Sherif, 1954)
origins of prejudice16
Origins of Prejudice
  • 2. Social Categorization – the process of classifying people according to particular social characteristics.
    • Minimal group paradigm (Tajfel, 1980’s)
    • In-group bias- the tendency to favor one’s own groups.
how many dots are on the screen
How many dots are on the screen?

………………………………………………………..

……………………………….

…………………………………………….

…………………………………………………….

…………………………………….

…………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………..

results
Results
  • Ingroup vs. ingroup  even allocation
  • Outgroup vs. outgroup  even allocation
  • Ingroup vs. outgroup  2:1 allocation
explanation for ingroup bias
Explanation for Ingroup Bias
  • Social Identity Theory (Tajfel) – people are motivated to maintain self-esteem and can do this by (1) affiliating with attractive groups and (2) viewing one’s own groups as favorably as possible.
birging
BIRGing
  • Basking in reflected glory- behavior that enhances our association with successful groups and minimizes our association with unsuccessful groups.
prejudice and self esteem fein spencer 1997
Prejudice and Self-EsteemFein & Spencer (1997)

Rating of

applicant

Applicant

Feedback

reducing prejudice
Reducing Prejudice
  • 1. Contact hypothesis
    • Equal status
    • Cooperation
  • 2. Re-categorization
  • 3. Use of controlled processing to override automatic stereotyping
  • 4. Social Norms