SLAUGHTERHOUSES Patricia García García de Pereda Sonia García Redondo Beatriz Gómez Fernández Irene Huerta Illera 1. General information 1.1 The slaughtering industry in the European Union 18% 17% 14% 1.2 Trends which may influence future resources in the slaughtering industry
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Patricia García García de Pereda
Sonia García Redondo
Beatriz Gómez Fernández
Irene Huerta Illera
1.1 The slaughtering industry in the European Union
1.2 Trends which may influence future resources in the slaughtering industry
lower consumption per unit
easier to solve environmental problems
Increase hygiene requirements Higher intensity of cleaning and sterilisationIncreased consumption of water and energy
Reduction in the use of animal by-products in animal feed
Control of carcase chilling processes
health employeesnot repetitive operation
Automation requirement for energy
Improved lighting and ventilation
Increase due to the demand of products prepared quickly and simply
Not to clean intestines if a reduction of water usage or pollution of the waste water is required
Cooling of blood requires considerable amount of energy but provides better products and less pollution
Capital availabilityproduction improvements
1.3 Technical characteristics of slaughterhouses slaughtering industry
Classification: those who carries out slaugtherhouse operations only
those that also operates cutting plants to produce specific meat cuts and portions. Most poultry processors
These are then packed as chilled or frozen meat for sale.
Concentration of the industry into fewer larger units downstream activities and/or disposal or recycling of animal by-products take place on the same premises as slaughtering reduce consumption and emission levels on the integrated site as a whole
Process lines automated Peak periods
Lifetime: 25-40 years
1.5 Key environmental issues slaughtering industry
Air: Water vapour from boilers
Water: high water consumption (EU & MS meat legislation)
high BOD, COD and TSS concentrationsblood treated at WWTP or pretreatment
proportional to floor area used, method of slaughter, carcase dressing & cooling and degree of automation
Energy: Refrigeration plant 45-90% electrical energy
Heat water oil and/or natural gas
Odour: blood storage and handling, slurry, occupied lairages and inedible offal storage
Noise: animal noises during unloading and marshalling, vehicle movements, compressors…
1.6 Economic overview slaughtering industry
Diseases: Meat consumption grows (developing world) transport and risk of spread diseases
Hidden costs in animal disease epidemics: price paid to farmers for these animals
Keep costs to a minimum: contracts with larger companies
fierce competition bankrupt
Costs: provision and maintenance of abatement equipment
cleaning up and repairing damage to plant and environment
studies to avoid pollution
changing technological and operational techniques…
Have increased for the treatment and disposal of animal by-products
Each MS has its own financial arrangements for paying for rendering and for the subsequent disposal of animal meal: costs are passed to the costumer, imposed a costumer tax on meat sales…
1.7 Food and veterinary legislation influences slaughtering industry
Directive: set out the main hygiene requirements for slaughterhouses.
some have significant environmental consequences (water & energy consumption)
Other food, veterinary and animal welfare legislation influences the applied processes and techniques.
ABP Regulation: prevent animal by-products derived from animals not fit for human consumption, following health inspection, from entering the feed chain and presenting a risk to animal or public health.
2 Applied processes and techniques slaughtering industry
- Vary depending on the type of animal
Animals arrive cleanwet hides and skins can deteriorate more quickly
Animals are held in the lairage recover from the stress of the journey.
The traditional stunning method for pigs involves applying scissor
For pigs is also used CO2 baths.
Animals could be killed by electrocution
After stunning, animals are hung on an overhead rail
Is carried out according to certain religious rites.
Consists on incising the carotid arteries
Blood is pumped to a refrigerated and agitated tank additives to prevent coagulation.
Sometimes are salted to improve preservation
This unit consist on gas burners firing intermittently
The refrigeration systems use a refrigerant to transfer heat from the carcases to be cooled to ambient air
2.2 Waste water treatments slaughtering industry
discharge directly to local water course
2.2 Waste water treatments slaughtering industry
DAF treatment plant: use of very fine air bubbles to remove suspended solids
sludge used to be incinerated limitations on land spreading
storage, handling and spreadingodour problems
organic waste material + slaughtering industry
finely divided organic fibrous material +
Reaction mixtureEMERGING TECHNIQUESBio-refining of animal by-products to produce soil improvers and fertilisers
All slaughterhouses must have a pressurised supply of potable water within the meaning of Directive 80/778/EEC. This requirement for potable water to be used limits the opportunities for re-use of water.
A non-potable water supply is authorised in exceptional cases for steam production, fire fighting and the cooling of refrigeration equipment,
Slaughterhouses have an energy consumption even when no production takes place (heating and operation of the refrigeration system)range of 36 - 154 kWh/t carcase
include lairage and vehicle wash solids; animal by-products; sludge, clean and contaminated packaging; protective clothing and equipment.
In the UK, solid wastes are commonly sent to landfill, but in Denmark, they are used in biogas production.
The main sources of noise and vibration are: animal noises during unloading and marshalling to the slaughter-line; vehicle movements; compressors; air conditioners; ventilation fans and carcase splitting.
Some examples of reached BAT:
(-) odours, (+) less pollution of waste water.
(+) more hygiene, less recovering time, more capacity, less pollution in wastewater.
(-) high consumption of energy.
(+) Reduced water and energy consumption. The lungs can be used.
(-) The carcases will have to be washed prior to scalding. If there is any dirt on the skin, this will prevent the steam from contacting the skin. Expensive.
By-products can be collected, handled and stored separately or in categories, depending on their further use or disposal route and on the potential environmental consequences of mixing them.