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Research Methods in. Developmental Psychology. Michael Hoerger. Observation. Hypothesis generation Laboratory Observation: Parent-child interactions, marriages, intrusive interviews, attachment style Naturalistic observation: bullying, ADHD

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research methods in

Research Methods in

Developmental Psychology

Michael Hoerger

observation
Observation
  • Hypothesis generation
  • Laboratory Observation: Parent-child interactions, marriages, intrusive interviews, attachment style
  • Naturalistic observation: bullying, ADHD
  • Used to gain detailed information on a single or small number of cases, commonly used in medicine and clinical psychology: rare events, new events, complex events

Case Study

correlation4
Correlation
  • r = Strength of relationship between two variables (-1 to +1)
  • What is a “big” correlation?
    • Reliability: r = .90
    • IQ tests: r = .50 to .90
    • Personality research: r = .30
    • Life/death: r = .01
  • Problem: Correlation ≠ Causation due to 3rd variable problem and directionality problem
  • Solution: Methods and argument
cross lagged panel design or cross lag panel or cross panel lag
Cross Lagged Panel Design (or “Cross lag panel” or “Cross panel lag”)
  • Look at correlation between two variables over time
  • Does X correlated with changes inY?
    • Smoking at Time 1 causes increased mile time at Time 2
slide6
Look at correlation between two variables over time
  • Does X correlated with changes inY?
    • Maternal depression at Time 1 causes increased behavior problems at Time 2
slide8
THIS DRUG HAS HELPED TO TREAT: HAY FEVER, ASTHMA ATTACKS, ANXIETY, PAIN, ULCERS, ENURESIS, WARTS, ARTHRITIS, MALIGNANT TUMORS, DIABETES, NARCOTIC WITHDRAWAL, INSOMNIA, COLDS, AND INATTENTIVENESS
experiment id
Experiment “id!”
  • Independent variable: the manipulation; different conditions or groups
    • Alcohol vs. placebo; CBT vs. waitlist
  • Dependent variables: depends on the independent variable; the outcome variable
    • Age at death; depression; liver functioning
  • Problem: Participants must be similar across IV groups
  • Solution: Random assignment
survey
Survey
  • Interviews, questionnaires, tests
  • Used for correlational studies or as outcome (DV) measures in experimental studies
  • Highly efficient
  • Can be anonymous
  • Problems: Wording, Response bias (e.g. social desirability)
  • Solutions: Design with care
online research
Online Research
  • Most surveys and some experiments can be run on the web (e.g. priming studies)
  • Benefits: most efficient, useful for screening large samples
  • Risks: Lower experimental control, random responding, technical problems, non-representative sampling, ethics
  • http://funpsych.com example
physical measures
Physical Measures
  • Physiological: changes in functioning
    • Galvanic skin response (sweating), pupil dilation, heart rate
  • Physical: walking speed, eye movement, speed of responding, height, weight
  • Neurological: neurotransmitter levels, brain structure
  • Benefits: reliability of measurement
  • Risks: expensive, often fail to provide new information, low correspondence
cross sectional research
Cross-Sectional Research
  • Groups differ by age
    • Compare children to teens to young adults to older adults
  • Differences are presumed to be the result of age
    • Older people are slower due to aging
  • BUT differences may simply be due to contextual factors, such as the era each group was born in
    • OR older people are slower due to differences in nutrition growing up
longitudinal research
Longitudinal Research
  • Follow one group over time to what changes with age
    • Problem: expensive, bias due to dropout
    • Combines cross-sectional and longitudinal research

Cross-Sequential Research

slide15
Michael Hoerger

To cite this lecture:

  • Hoerger, M. (2007, January 10). Research Methods in Developmental Psychology. Presented at a PSY 220 lecture at Central Michigan University.