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Reading Strategies for High School Students: A Review of the Literature Bill Muth Virginia Commonwealth University Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium Policy & Planning Council Meeting Wednesday, March 4th, 2009

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reading strategies for high school students a review of the literature
Reading Strategies for High School Students:A Review of the Literature

Bill Muth

Virginia Commonwealth University

Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium

Policy & Planning Council Meeting

Wednesday, March 4th, 2009

slide2

National Assessment of Educational ProgressVirginia 8TH Grade Reading

66%

Less than proficient

National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2005

proficient readers
proficient readers
  • fluent
  • deep and broad vocabularies
  • read strategically
  • self-directed and engaged
what works
what works

Kamil et al. (2008)

  • explicit instruction: vocabulary
  • explicit instruction: comprehension strategies
  • extended discussions of text
  • student engagement
  • intensive interventions for struggling readers
explicit vocabulary instruction
explicit vocabulary instruction
  • 3,000 new words per year, grades 3-12
  • extensive reading, but…
  • direct instruction
    • new words
      • Tier 1,2,3
    • How to learn words independently
  • ↑ word consciousness
explicit vocabulary instruction7
explicit vocabulary instruction
  • multiple exposures in multiple contexts
  • strategies
    • semantic feature analysis, semantic mapping
    • games
    • running records
  • word-rich classrooms
    • dictionaries, thesauruses, word walls, crossword puzzles, Scrabble and other word games, literature, poetry books, and word-play and joke books
direct instruction of comprehension strategies
direct instruction of comprehension strategies
  • active comprehension monitoring & fix-up strategies
  • graphic and semantic organizers & story maps
  • question generation
  • summarization and paraphrasing
  • selective rereading
direct instruction of comprehension strategies9
direct instruction of comprehension strategies
  • content reading strategies
    • win-win solutions
    • boost discipline learning and general reading
  • explicit instruction
    • demonstrations (e.g., teacher think-alouds)
    • Discussion
  • professional development support.
extended discussion of text
extended discussion of text
  • engage students in…
    • predicting
    • questioning
    • clarifying
    • summarizing
    • interpreting
    • connecting to prior learning
  • examples:
    • anticipation Guides
    • directed reading and thinking activities
    • reciprocal teaching
extended discussion of text11
extended discussion of text
  • students scaffold each other
  • model literate thinking
  • ↑ Comprehension of difficult text
  • adjustments to curriculum:
    • tension between depth and breadth
motivation and engagement
motivation and engagement
  • interesting and relevant content
  • goals tied to “big picture”
  • being challenged (“academic press”)
  • examples:
    • range of choice and autonomy
    • hands-on learning experiences
    • interesting and accessible tests
    • collaboration through discussions and assignments.
motivation and engagement13
motivation and engagement

understanding the potential of non-canonical literacies

  • canon of methods
  • ELLs funds of knowledge
  • girls portrayed in traditional & pop culture
  • African American boys and masculinity
  • digital literacies
intensive interventions
intensive interventions

struggling readers triaged:

  • those with word-level proficiency
    • content area reading support for vocabulary, fluency and comprehension.
  • those lacking word-level proficiency
    • specialized intensive help
  • if significantly behind, (e.g., 2+ years)
    • system approach such as Response to Intervention
intensive interventions15
intensive interventions

all learners, including ELLs and struggling readers,

benefit from:

  • formative assessment
  • differentiated instruction
formative assessment differentiated instruction
formative assessment &differentiated instruction
  • rich questioning & discussion to uncover student thinking
  • comment-only marking
  • sharing (co-constructing) scoring and grading criteria
  • ↑ opportunities for peer- and self-assessment.
  • group review of outcomes from tests.
formative assessment differentiated instruction17
formative assessment &differentiated instruction

differentiation starts with accurate assessment

FA starts with clear knowledge of standards & tasks.

classroom-based FA:

  • “unpack” State standards
  • but—some literacy standards point to competencies that have less well-developed “theory of task”
  • e.g., “describe the relationship between theme, setting, and character…”
formative assessment differentiated instruction18
formative assessment &differentiated instruction

differentiation starts with accurate assessment

FA starts with clear knowledge of standards & tasks.

intervention classrooms:

  • targeting word-level skills (e.g., phonics)
  • maintain meaningful purposes for reading
  • NAEP is insensitive to instructional needs of struggling readers
  • NAEP treats literacy as general skill, not content specific
formative assessment differentiated instruction19
formative assessment &differentiated instruction

challenges: changing attitudes and instructional practices

  • tensions between teachers and administrators
  • educators’ attitudes & beliefs about indicators of student success
  • teachers need concrete FA examples:
    • assessment exemplars
    • discussion questions
    • think alouds
    • text sets
    • student-constructed rubrics
other findings
other findings
  • integrate SOLs “essential knowledge” with instruction
  • buy-in at all levels
  • teachers focus on no more than 2-4 strategies
  • content teachers need incentives & PD
  • content teachers need to know what is and is not expected of them
  • each discipline needs to define its own essential literacy skills.
conclusions
conclusions

fostering:

deep knowledge of the tasks

deep understanding of our students

making connections between the two