MCH/Public Health Milestones Part VI: 1940-1959 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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MCH/Public Health Milestones Part VI: 1940-1959

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  1. MCH/Public HealthMilestonesPart VI: 1940-1959 Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  2. Greg R. Alexander, MPH, ScDCathy Chadwick, MPH Donna J. Petersen, MHS, ScDMaryAnn Pass, MD, MPH Martha Slay, MPHNicole Shumpert, BS Department of Maternal and Child Health The MCH Leadership Skills Training Institute University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  3. Acknowledgement Supported by funding from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  4. 1940 White House Conference on Children in a Democracy U.S. Involvement in World War II begins Antibiotics used to reduce mortality due to infectious diseases Emergency Maternity Infant Care Program Children’s Bureau placed in Social Security Administration School Lunch Program begins Formation of United Cerebral Palsy Brown vs. Board of Education ends segregated schools Polio vaccine developed Increasing awareness and provisions for children with mental disabilities 1959 Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  5. 1940: White House Conference on Children in a Democracy • The White House Conference on Children in a Democracy addressed the problems concerning malnutrition. • It also focused attention on discrimination on the basis of race or creed, and urged the elimination of such practices. • Another result of the conference was a proposal for a national program on maternity care. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  6. Expectant Mother Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  7. 1940s • In the years during and following World War II, a number of demographic changes impacted upon the health care delivery system. • The population explosion during these years, in addition to increasing demands on the health care delivery system and changes in medical education, resulted in a shortage of physicians and other health care professionals who provided primary care services. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  8. 1941: U.S. enters World War II Children at Auschwitz Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  9. 1940s • The migration from small and rural communities, and the growth in the population of urban areas, also contributed to an increasing mal-distribution of health resources. • These problems were compounded by health care financing difficulties Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  10. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  11. 1943: Emergency Maternity Infant Care Program (1943-1948) • The Emergency Maternity and Infant Care Program (EMIC), passed by Congress in 1943, provided funds for maternity and infant care for the wives and infants of servicemen in the four lower pay grades. • Medical, nursing, and hospital services for the prenatal period, as well as delivery and six weeks postpartum care, were provided to these families at no charge. • In addition, complete care was provided for infants less than one year old. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  12. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  13. Emergency Maternity Infant Care Program (1943-1948) • The program continued until mid-1948. • It was the largest public medical care program undertaken in the United States up to that time. • Because it was closely identified with the war effort, Congress and the Executive branch strongly supported this program. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  14. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  15. 1940s-1950s • The United States experienced significant advances in medicine and public health during these years and technical developments in the health field continued to grow and expand at a rapid pace. • Antibiotics, such as penicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline, discovered during this period, reduced morbidity and mortality caused by pneumonia, meningitis, dysentery, and other bacterial infections. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  16. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  17. Antibiotics Introduced • Antibiotics, known as “miracle drugs,” provided enormous benefits to adults and children. • These drugs significantly reduced child mortality rates due to pneumonia, meningitis, and dysentery, as well as other diseases caused by bacteria. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  18. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  19. 1940s-1950s • There was rapid progress in the knowledge of nutrition and vitamins, as well as in emerging medical fields, such as pediatric surgery. • Health care professionals devoted increasing attention to the physical, mental, and emotional development of the child. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  20. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  21. 1946: Children’s Bureau Placed in Federal Security Agency • In 1946, the Children’s Bureau was placed in the Federal Security Agency. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  22. President Harry Truman Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  23. School Lunch Act • The National School Lunch Act was passed in 1946 as a measure to“secure the well-being and health of children as well as to encourage consumption of local food.” Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  24. School Children Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  25. 1949: Formation of United Cerebral Palsy • Leonard and Isabelle Goldenson worked to help establish the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, part of the National Institutes of Health. • The recruitment of parents of children with cerebral palsy interested in improving services for their kids in New York City and the surrounding area gave rise to the National Foundation for Cerebral Palsy. • In 1949,the name of the organization was changed to United Cerebral Palsy and affiliates across the nation were formed. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  26. Leonard Goldenson, founder of UCP Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  27. 1950s • In spite of these advances during the 1940s, the 1950s were years of stagnation for child health. • Infant mortality ceased to decline, and the maternal mortality rate remained high for certain subgroups. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  28. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  29. 1950s • An increasing number of new mothers chose to bottle feed their infants. • Additionally, large numbers of children in low-income families received no medical or dental care. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  30. Infant Formula Production Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  31. 1950: Mid-century White House Conference on Children and Youth • The Mid-century White House Conference focused on the mental and emotional development of the child with the theme of the “total well-being of children.” • Issues regarding the needs of retarded children also were considered in the conference. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  32. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  33. 1950: Mid-century White House Conference on Children and Youth • In addition, the conference addressed the problems of racially segregated public schools, and commissioned Kenneth Clark to write “Prejudice and Your Child.” • In 1954, this document became part of the U.S. Supreme Court’s opinion in Brown versus the Board of Education (see 1954, Brown v. The Board of Education. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  34. Banning of Segregation in Schools Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  35. 1951: National Children’s Bureau Division of Child and Maternal Health • Martha May Eliot, a pediatrician, was instrumental in many postwar programs for maternal and child health • In 1951, she became Bureau Chief of the National Children's Bureau Division of Child and Maternal Health Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  36. Martha May Eliot Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  37. 1952: National Association of Retarded Children • As a result of the Mid-century White House Conference, the National Association for Retarded Children was formed. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  38. National Association of Retarded Children Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  39. 1953: Department of HEW • The Federal Security Agency became known as the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) in 1953, under the leadership of President Dwight Eisenhower. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  40. President Dwight Eisenhower Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  41. 1954: Brown v. Board of Education • The Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. The Board of Education had a significant impact on the future course of special education. • This decision challenged the long held opinion that “separate but equal” was legally and socially acceptable. • This same ruling was used in Utah in 1969 to support the decision requiring fair and equal education for mentally retarded students. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  42. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  43. Polio Vaccine Developed • Three immunologically distinct polio viruses were established as causative agents of poliomyelitis during the 1940s. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  44. Polio Vaccine Field Trials Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  45. Polio Vaccine Development • In 1954, an inactivated vaccine was developed by Dr. Jonas Salk. • Two years later, Dr. Albert Sabin perfected a live attenuated vaccine. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  46. Albert Sabin Jonas Salk Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  47. 1957: MCH-MR Demonstration Clinical Programs • Increased appropriations for Maternal and Child Health programs was authorized by Congress in 1957. • One million dollars was earmarked for demonstration clinical programs for mentally retarded children. • The response was so prompt and organized, that new diagnostic, consultative, and educational clinics rapidly were established nationwide. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  48. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  49. 1958: Full-time Working Mothers • By 1958, women were entering the job market in greater numbers than ever before. • It was estimated that 4,037,000 children under age 12 lived in families in which the mother worked full time. • A Children’s Bureau survey found that 400,000 of these children had no adult supervision during the day. Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham

  50. Working Mothers Department of Maternal and Child Health University of Alabama at Birmingham