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Organic Chemistry: Functional Groups Origin of organic compounds Naturally occurring organic compounds are found in plants, animals, and fossil fuels All of these have a plant origin All of these rely on the “fixing” of C from CO 2

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origin of organic compounds
Origin of organic compounds
  • Naturally occurring organic compounds are found in plants, animals, and fossil fuels
  • All of these have a plant origin
  • All of these rely on the “fixing” of C from CO2
  • Synthetic organic compounds are derived from fossil fuels or plant material
introduction
C

C

C

C

C

Introduction
  • Most current research focuses on Organic
  • Originally from “organic” meaning life
  • Not just chemistry of life, chemistry of carbon
  • Exceptions:
    • oxides of carbon (CO2, CO)
    • carbonates,bicarbonates(NaHCO3,CaCO3)
    • cyanides (NaCN, etc)

One C with no H, or with metal

  • Carbon can form four bonds…
carbon forms four bonds
Carbon forms four bonds
  • Carbon can form four bonds, and forms strong covalent bonds with other elements
  • This can be represented in many ways …
functional groups
Functional groups
  • Functional groups are parts of molecules that result in characteristic features
  • About 100 functional groups exist, we will focus on about 10
  • Useful to group the infinite number of possible organic compounds
  • E.g. the simplest group is hydrocarbons
  • Made up of only C and H
  • Not really a functional “group”
  • Further divided into:
      • Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Aromatics
hydrocarbons
C C

C C

C C

Hydrocarbons

Alkanes

Alkenes

Alkynes

Aromatics

functional groups7
Functional groups
  • Read 1012 - 1014
  • You will need to memorize family name and associated general structure (use study notes: includes ether group)
  • Handout Molecular model kits
  • Build this structure:
  • Assignment: in groups build each of the “Examples” in table 24.1
  • Each member must have the exact same molecule (thus you must agree on structure)
  • Show me the structure(s) after building each
hydroxyl carbonyl carboxyl
Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl
  • There are other names that describe patterns of atoms that are parts of functional groups.
  • “Hydroxyl” refers to –OH
  • “Carbonyl” refers to C=O
  • “Carboxyl” refers to COOH

Q: which functional groups contain a hydroxyl group? A carbonyl group? A carboxyl group?

Hydroxyl: alcohols, carboxylic acids. Carbonyl:

aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amides, esters. Carboxyl: carboxylic acids

Note that properties such as boiling and melting point change due to functional groups

For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com

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