Tony Bilello Topics of Interest: • sequestration of Carbon (CO2 Sinks) • surf power systems (Up or Down?) • Tidal energy (Worth it?) • Debt For Nature Swap (Sink CO2)
Sequestration of Carbon • What it is? (Cycle, Reaction, …) • Where does it happen? • Overall Environmental Impact? • Fish Farms?
What is Carbon Sequestration? • Definition: • Carbon sequestration: The ability of forests or other natural systems to "sink" or store carbon, thereby preventing it from collecting in the atmosphere as CO2. Forests absorb carbon when they break down CO2 during photosynthesis. • Carbon sink: A carbon pool, such as a well-managed, older forest, which has more carbon flowing into it than flows out. Forests are the best sinks because they are the most efficient means of taking carbon out of the atmosphere and storing it for the long term. http://www.pacificforest.org/about/glossary.html • Carbon sink • Natural: Ocean, trees, etc. • Forests, plant life, soil, etc. • Ocean, and aquatic plant life, etc • Artificial: Iron Fertilization in Ocean->Phytoplankton http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide_sink
Carbon Sequestration (Where) • In the Rainforests and also in our Oceans • South America-Brazil • Central America • North America • Asia-Vietnam, Indonesia
Overall Environmental Impact of Carbon Sequestration • HW4 problem Results: • For 600,000 Km^2 in Brazil reforested with Eucalyptus plantations at given rates the CO2 converted from atmosphere to wood for 15 years would be comparable to the CO2 produced in the US for say 16.4 years of driving. (HW4 solution)
Fish Farms & Carbon Sequestration • Farming the Ocean In response to destructive slash-and-burn agricultural techniques, farmers in Peru are moving to something called "integrated aquaculture". Fish-farming, using non-destructive organic methods, is providing a source of food and income for Peruvian farmers, without endangering the fragile ecosystem of the Amazon rain forest. http://www.solutions-site.org/kids/stories/KScat1_sol3.htm http://www.perc.org/perc.php?id=320
Fish Farms • So they can Replant the rain forests and sustain a living with these fish farms. • This sort of transition could be a double play since the land can be purchased by the Debt for Nature swap (more to come).
Surf Power Systems • Not very promising since it requires research and development still, and the Ocean is such a harsh environment. • Bio-fuels of various sorts seem more feasible.
Surf Systems not very promising • Seem like a potential waste of resources • Actually might threaten the migration of whales and other migrating sea life depending on location. • Only feasible if low maintenance devices available, and depends on location as some spots get poor swell on average for the year.
Biofuels of various sorts seem more feasible than Surf Power Systems • Biofuel is Biofuel is a generic term for transport fuel produced from plant or animal material.http://www.eeca.govt.nz/renewable-energy/biofuels/faqs-biofuels.html#b1 • Bio-fuel needs engine and produces some CO2 and others emissions. • Surf power needs only reliable surf which is a reasonable condition in some regions though seasonal. • Bio-fuel is a cost effective renewable resource alternative to petro. • Surf power has a lot of research that may prove futile.
Tidal Energy • Reliable • China’s, France’s, etc… • (photo: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_power ) • New proposed projects • Where? 2 slide slides away
Tidal Energy- “Reliable” • Operation: recurring tides come in, gates close and a reservoir is filled with power producing capacity. • Location determines most of the critical design factors • Practical Size • Reservoir Size
Tidal Energy- New Proposed Projects http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_power
Debt For Nature Swap • Definition: A debt—for—nature swap is an arrangement by which an indebted developing country undertakes, in exchange for cancellation of a portion of its foreign debt, to establish local currency funds to be used to finance a conservation program. (http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=557)
Commercial Debt-for-Nature Swaps Summary Table (Amount in US$) Nathan PetersonEDGE: Spring 2005 http://www.worldwildlife.org/conservationfinance/pubs/commercial_swaps_summary.pdf
Conclusion • sequestration of Carbon (Natural) • surf power systems • Tidal energy (Worth it!) • Debt For Nature Swap (very good planning)