normative ethical theory l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Normative Ethical Theory PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Normative Ethical Theory

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17

Normative Ethical Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 690 Views
  • Uploaded on

Normative Ethical Theory. Jim Okapal Asst. Professor of Philosophy Missouri Western State University. Moral Theories. Morality is concerned with social practices defining right and wrong; it consists of what persons ought to do in order to conform to society’s norms

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Normative Ethical Theory' - andrew


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
normative ethical theory

Normative Ethical Theory

Jim Okapal

Asst. Professor of Philosophy

Missouri Western State University

moral theories
Moral Theories
  • Morality is concerned with social practices defining right and wrong; it consists of what persons ought to do in order to conform to society’s norms
  • Ethical Theory concerns the philosophical reasons for and against aspects of the morality
normative ethical theories
Normative Ethical Theories
  • Substantive proposals concerning how to act, how to live, or what kind of person to be that are usually expressed in principles or rules that are meant to guide our action, life, or character development
consequentialism
Consequentialism

The moral worth of an action is determined by its consequences

  • (consequences could be objective states of affairs such as gross national product; they could be internal states of affairs like feelings of pleasure or happiness)
consequentialism5
Consequentialism

General Principle of Action

Perform that act which will promote the good for X

(Each underlined term must be defined)

consequentialism6
Consequentialism

Perform that act which will promote the good for X

  • Maximizing View: you maximize the amount of the type of good identified by the theory

Perform that act which will maximize the good for X

consequentialism7
Consequentialism

Perform that act which will promote the good for X

  • Hedonism: good = pleasure
  • Eudaimonism: good = happiness
  • Preference Satisfaction: good= utility
  • Ideal Goods: good equals a list of things like pleasure, health, beauty, justice, truth, etc

Perform that act which will maximize pleasure for x

consequentialism8
Consequentialism

Perform that act which will promote the good for X

  • Egoism: x = only me
  • Utilitarianism: x = the greatest number of people (including me)
  • Altruism: x = the greatest number of people excluding me

Perform that act which will maximize pleasure for the greatest number of people

This is the principle of action for hedonistic utilitarianism

consequentialism9
Consequentialism
  • What is the principle of action for..
    • A Eudimonistic egoist?
    • An ideal goods altruist who believes justice and integrity are the only intrinsically valuable things?
deontology
Deontology

The moral worth of an action is dependent upon whether the action is derived from an intrinsically right characteristic

Different theories have different tests to determine intrinsically right characteristics

deontology11
Deontology

Kantianism

Moral worth of an action depends on the will of the person performing the action, i.e., what is the reason that one is performing the action?

  • Universal: Act only on that maxim that you can will to be a universal law
  • Respect: Act such that you treat others as an end and not merely as a means

Maxim: a subjective principle of volition (a principle upon which you act).

deontology12
Deontology

Rights-Based Ethics

the moral worth of an action is dependent upon its relationship to a set of natural rights based in the facts of humanity and the world in which it inhabits

  • Perform that act which will protect the rights of those individuals affected by the action

Sample rights: life, liberty, property, happiness, speech, etc.

deontology13
Deontology

Contractarianism

the moral worth of an action is dependent upon the construction of a hypothetical bargaining situation and the resulting decision of worth

  • Perform that action that hypothetical agents would mutually agree to for the benefit of the worst off
  • Perform that action that hypothetical agents would mutually agree to for mutual benefit
deontology14
Deontology

Common Morality Theories

moral worth of an action is determined by the set of norms that make communal life not only possible, but helps it flourish

  • Perform that action that prescribed by the moral rules

(No unified theoretical basis for the norms)

virtue ethics
Virtue Ethics

moral worth is fundamentally about the development of a character that has virtuous characteristics

  • Perform that action which will develop virtuous characteristics
  • Perform that action which the virtuous person would perform
virtue ethics16
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue: a disposition to act (where having a mental state can possibly be considered an action) from an innate capacity properly trained and exercised
  • Substantive virtues: those necessarily connected with the good; e.g. justice, compassion, truthfulness
  • Executive virtues: those character traits not necessarily connected with the good; e.g., diligence, perseverance competitiveness, toughness
feminist ethics
Feminist Ethics

Ethics of Care

moral worth is fundamentally about the features of personal relationships

  • perform that action which will strengthen the bonds of personal relationships

sympathy, compassion, fidelity, love, friendship, etc., should be developed in the character of individuals.