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Muhammad and the Growth of Islam Lesson 10-3 The Prophet Muhammad Born in Mecca on the Arabian peninsula Raised by relatives after his parents died; became a trader Had a revelation or vision from Allah (God) telling him he would be his prophet

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the prophet muhammad
The Prophet Muhammad
  • Born in Mecca on the Arabian peninsula
  • Raised by relatives after his parents died; became a trader
  • Had a revelation or vision from Allah (God) telling him he would be his prophet
  • Islam, (“submitting to God’s will”) a religion based on the revelations given to Muhammad grows
  • A Muslim, or follower of Islam, believes that the Qur’an is God’s word and Muhammad is his messenger.
the holy quran
The Holy Quran
  • Muslims believe the Qur’an is the direct word of Allah revealed to Muhammad
  • The Quran is written and read in Arabic and is about as long as the Christian New Testament.
mecca and medina
Mecca and Medina
  • In 622 Muhammad goes to Medina and sets up the first Muslim community.
  • Muhammad’s journey to Medina is called theHijrah
  • 622 is the start of the Muslim calendar
  • Mecca is a holy city for Muslims all over the world today.
the five pillars of islam
The Five Pillars of Islam
  • Testimony of FaithThere is no god but God or Allah, and Muhammad is His messenger or prophet.
  • Daily PrayerPray 5x each day in the direction of the holy city of Mecca.
  • Charity Give money to the poor.
  • FastingNo food or drink from dawn until dusk during the holy month of Ramadan - the 9th month of the Muslim calendar.
  • Pilgrimage Travel to the holy city of Mecca at least once during one’s lifetime.
slide6
Hajj
  • Muslims make a spiritual journey called a pilgrimage (or hajj) to visit the Kaaba in Mecca.
  • According to the Quran, the Kaaba (black cube) was made by Abraham.
death of the prophet
Death of the Prophet
  • Muhammad died in 632 and rose into heaven from a holy rock where Jews believe Abraham prepared the sacrifice of his son, Isaac in Jerusalem. On this site Muslims built a mosque called the Dome of the Rock.

DOME OF THE ROCK, Jerusalem

the muslim world
The Muslim World
  • Major groups of Muslims: Sunnis and Shi’ites
  • Most Muslims are Sunnis (85%)
  • Shi’ites are the majority in Iraq and Iran
sunnis vs shi ites
Sunnis vs. Shi’ites
  • Sunnis(85%)
    • The caliph (Muslim leader) may be elected from the Muslim community.
  • Shi’ites (Shia) (15%)
    • The caliph (Muslim leader) must be a descendant of the family of Muhammad
      • This basic belief has caused many disagreements between the Sunnis and Shi’ites for many years.
a muslim mosque
A Muslim Mosque
  • Muslims had a strong interest in art.
  • A mosque, or Muslim house of worship is considered a work of art.
  • They are often decorated with geometric designs and verses from the Qur’an.
muslim architecture
Muslim Architecture

The towers of a

mosque are where

the call to prayer

is heard each day.

jerusalem a holy city
Jerusalem – A Holy City
  • Jews, Christians, and Muslims consider Jerusalem a holy city.
    • Abrahamic Tradtion
      • All three groups trace their monotheistic heritage to Abraham.
    • Jews pray at the Western Wall ; the last remaining wall of the ancient Jewish temple.
  • Muslims visit the Dome of the Rock (Site of Muhammad’s journey to heaven and sacrifice of Isaac.
  • Christians visit the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built on the site where Jesus was crucified and buried.
  • Today, Jerusalem is the capital of the nation of Israel.
the ottoman empire
The Ottoman Empire
  • In 1453 Muslim Turks, the Ottomans, captured Constantinople ending the Byzantine Empire.
  • The Ottomans then conquered much of the territory held by the Byzantines.
  • The rule of the Ottoman Empire united much of the Muslim world under one ruler.