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Mobbing Psychiatric impacts and psycho-social outcomes. Professor Philippe Corten Van Driette Y., Dewell P., From L., Friedrich A., Tiv Ph., Pelc I. Clinique du Stress - 2005. Mobbing was described by H. Leymann M-F. Hirigoyen Ch. Dejours As a moral ill-treatment at work.

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mobbing psychiatric impacts and psycho social outcomes

MobbingPsychiatric impacts and psycho-social outcomes

Professor Philippe Corten

Van Driette Y., Dewell P., From L., Friedrich A., Tiv Ph., Pelc I.

Clinique du Stress - 2005

mobbing background
Mobbing was described by

H. Leymann

M-F. Hirigoyen

Ch. Dejours

As a moral ill-treatment at work

Mobbing (Bullying) definition:

Repetitive and abusive attitudes at work (=harassment)

The behaviors separately considered are insignificants

H. Leymann process:

To isolate the victim

To prevent her to ask help or to express oneself

To bring her into disrepute toward colleagues or hierarchy

To hit the victim in his dignity (humiliations)

To compromise the health of the victim

Goal:

Destruction of the moral integrity

Mobbing: Background
mobbing aim and hypothesis
Mobbing:Aim and hypothesis
  • Has mobbing severe psychiatric consequences?
  • Has mobbing severe psycho-social outcomes?
  • What are the characteristics of the victims?
mobbing methodology
Design: retrospective study

Sample:

Source:

outpatients of the “clinique du stress” CHU-Brugmann, Brussels since September 2002 to august 2005.

Inclusive criteria:

Step 1:

All patients who met the definition of a pathological chronic stress were assessed (N= 395)

Definition of a chronic pathological stress:

A persistent state of tension negatively perceived

Where someone is or feels unable to answer adequately to the task

Where this inability may have significant consequences

With psychological, physical and/or functional impact

Mobbing: Methodology
mobbing methodology5
Inclusive criteria

Step 2:

Only patients who attribute the main source of stress to the job were maintained in the sample (N= 341)

Step 3:

Following the H. Leymann criteria the sample was divided in 2 subgroups

Perceived mobbing N= 101

Stressed patients without perceived mobbing N=228

Mobbing: Methodology
mobbing methodology6
Tools

Clinical assessment:

GHQ-28 of D. Goldberg (General Health Questionnaire) with 4 subscales

Anxiety

Depression

Summarizations

Disability

Beck Depression Inventory

Perceived stress of Cohen and Williamson

Stress at work of Legeron

Maslach Burn Out Inventory

Attitudes and behaviors toward stress

Locus of control

Copings

Assertivity

Alexythymia (TAS-20)

Clinical interview and follow-up by psychologists and/or psychiatrists

Anamnesis data

Sociologic data

Treatment

Drugs

Psychotherapy

Medical disablement to work

Mobbing: Methodology
mobbing results 2 what are the outcomes
Mobbing: results2- What are the outcomes?
  • Length of follow-up: NS
    • Mobbing: 10,09 months sd 8,91
    • Stress: 9,03 months sd 8,12
mobbing results 3 characteristics a attitudes toward stress
Locus of control

Internality (0 to 6)

Mobbing: Mean 2,52 sd 1,54

Stress: Mean 3,09 sd 1,65

Anova p=.0038

Externality (0 to 6)

Mobbing: Mean 1,95 sd 1,4

Stress: Mean 1,71 sd 1,45

Anova NS

=> Less internality

Copings

=> Nearly same or better

Mobbing: results3- Characteristicsa) Attitudes toward stress
mobbing results 3 characteristics a attitudes toward stress16
Emotions

Bad perceptions

(0 to 35, cutting point 14)

Mobbing: 19,8 sd 6,35

Stress: 21,49 sd 6,65

Anova NS

Bad verbalizations

(0 to 25, cutting point 10)

Mobbing: 13,76 sd 4,66

Stress: 16,05 sd 4,94

Anova p=.0014

Avoidance of emotions

(0 to 40, cutting point 16)

Mobbing: 14,39 sd 4,81

Stress: 15,38 sd 4,78

=> Bad perceptions and verbalizations but similar or better than stressed patients without mobbing

Assertivity

=> similar

Mobbing: results3- Characteristicsa) Attitudes toward stress
mobbing results 3 characteristics b sociological data
Mobbing: results3- Characteristicsb) Sociological data
  • Age : NS mean 42 years sd 8,55
  • Gender: mobbing 60% female vs 48% stressed (Chi Square p=.0351)
  • Life milieu: NS 65% founded home
  • Civil status: mobbing 21% divorced vs 7% (Chi Square p=.0111)
  • Education: NS 56% University or High School
mobbing discussion legal prosecution
Mobbing: discussionLegal prosecution
  • In Belgium two procedures are recognized to prosecute an harassing people
    • Internal procedure inside the company
    • Justice procedure
mobbing discussion post traumatic stress disorder ptsd
Mobbing: discussionPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ?

Symptoms:

Reviviscence

Avoidance

Hyper arousal

mobbing discussion ptsd
Mobbing: discussionPTSD ?
  • 43% of the victims have all the symptoms
  • Is mobbing a life threatening situation?
    • From the witnesses: NO
    • From the victim: YES
      • Spontaneously they compare mobbing to the most life frightful situations

“The XYZ company, it is Guantanamo in Brussels”

“When I gona better, I saw my inner city and what I look was Hiroshima”

“For me to be victim of mobbing is like to be a concentration camp survival: the same difficulties to speak about, the same incredible story, the same silence …”

      • Should we include in the definition of life threatening situation, the destruction of the moral integrity also?
mobbing conclusions
Mobbing: Conclusions
  • Mobbing has severe psychiatric consequences (GHQ-28 = 21)
  • Outcomes
    • Long time disablement (mean 9 months for 76% of them)
    • 2/3 anti depressive drugs, 60% supportive therapy, ½ specified psychotherapy
    • only 27% return to the same job after treatment, 33% are sacked
  • Characteristics
    • Similar or better attitude toward stress
    • More female and divorced
    • Neck tensions, decrease of libido, loose of weight, diarrhea, bruxism + Tiredness & early wake up
  • Prosecutions
    • 2/3 with no prosecution
  • PTSD
    • 43% have all the symptoms => extension of the life threatening definition?