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Negotiating a new social contract in the urban archipelago

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  1. Negotiating a new social contract in the urban archipelago The case of São Paulo Presentation by arch. Jorge Wilheim Washington december 2002 The World Bank/Urban development for poverty Reduction: towards a research agenda

  2. Forewords · I have been here before (sept.11, 1995) - new realities, old eyeglasses - data, information, knowledge, wisdom - developing tools for perception and understanding · The opportunity of a timely new research agenda · Topics - the present context - the urban archipelago - re-visiting urbanism - poverty in cities · An example: planning São Paulo

  3. The context 1.The present transitional period of history · where are the seeds of the future? radical changes or adjustments? · globalizations (global connectivity) · capital concentration and exclusions · rise and fall of the neo-liberal counter-reform - mass unemployment and growing inequalities · negotiating a new social contract · a new period of “encyclopedism” · back to the development debate - development versus the concentrating and excluding pattern of growth

  4. The context 2.The current trend of urbanization · the locus of tensions, change and creativity ·  world population ·  fecundity rate and mass migrations ·  identities, aculturation, stress

  5. The urban archipelago ·  global cities and megacities ·  the urban archipelago

  6. Re-visiting urbanism ·  a tool for development ·  casting the actors ·  changing methodology - political timing - strategies for partnerships ·  planning & managing the process ·  to preview & to provide

  7. Poverty in cities & its reduction ·  structural unemployment ·  is work just a salary? ·  ideological undertones ·  robin hood comes to town • - compensatory policies (poverty alleviation) • - employment policies (maximazing the • employment content of work) ·  poverty and citizenship ...and now let us try to illustrate these ideas with the case of São Paulo and its new plan

  8. Where is São Paulo? são paulo

  9. Brazilian challenges and strategies ·  inequalities and opportunities ·  mobile society ·  the need for a strategy of development ·  the position of the newly elected government • - the real economy (formal/informal) • - collective entrepreneurship and partnerships • - rural sustainable development • - bottom-up and top-down initiatives • - hunger, jobs, crime, corruption, education

  10. 1880

  11. 1880

  12. 1900

  13. 1950

  14. 80 km 35 km 2001

  15. Population – Absolut growth Evolution of local population 17,8 million Population (mm inhab.) 10,4 million source : IBGE – demography data

  16. The present situation (for the better or the worst) • · average of 120 km of daily traffic jam • · 2,0 hours average daily time of transportation • · only 43 km of subway • (140 km was the original project) • · perverse transport modal split: of the 30 million • daily trips, 1/3 are made on public transport, • 1/3 by cars and 1/3 on foot... • · 20% of irregular homes in shanty-towns • · 17% of unemployment • · high rate of homicides (mainly among youth): 57 / 100.000 · 13 thousand tons of daily garbage to be collected and disposed

  17. But also: · largest latin-american airport nob · largest universities and research nucleus in latin america · main and sophisticated medical center of latin america · largest and active core of cultural institutions and events · modern and cosmopolitan services and business tourism · easily adaptable qualified manpower

  18. The new law, named strategic master plan, was: • elaborated in 8 months • Debated during 9 months • 45+20 public hearings • City council as a locus for negotiations • “the public interest is not the same thing than the interest of everybody”

  19. Innovations · a well-timed methodology · actors participation · urbanistic purposes consolidated contention area re-structuring and recuperating area infrastructure consolidation area urbanizing area total environmental protection sustainable environment environmental use and conservation

  20. 6 leading principles: · action in solidarity towards the excluded • · consider homes as social rights · complete and expand the road and Transport network · recuperate the urban environment and preserve natural drainage · transfer part of developers and building profits to public works · strengthen the public sector initiative and planning mainly through land-use management and induced partnerships in urban operations

  21. Macrozones and space drifting environmental preservation urban structure

  22. Basic factor 1 free factor 2 in some areas Additional factor, up to 2,5 (to be purchased, free for social purposes) Maximum additional factor, up to 4 (to be purchased, free for social purposes) large urban operations, strategic projects and mass transport corridors Drifting space and building factors Estimate annual income from additional factors: R$ 150 million (U$ 50 million)

  23. Environmental net the “greening” of the city 700 km of green walks linear parks alleys new parks water sources cicling routes

  24. Large urban operations EXISTING URBAN OPERATION NEW URBAN OPERATIONS STRATEGIC OLIMPIC PROJECT STRATEGIC PROJECTS CORRIDOR STRATEGIC PROJECTS

  25. Poverty reduction · minimum salary compensation · capacitation of youth (16 to 20) · starting again (over 40) · collective opportunities · popular credit · digital inclusion · popular habitat (zones of social interest) Zeis Social housing ZEIS 1 ZEIS 2 ZEIS 3 ZEIS 4

  26. Other innovations · decentralization of management · 31 local boroughs plans · participation system - in budgeting - in land use - in conflicts solution

  27. and now... Let's debate!

  28. ... and thank you! jorge wilheim 2002 wilheimj@uol.com.br