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M40 Wilderness Survival Course for Boy Scouts. M40’s Wilderness Survival Class. INTRODUCTION My name is Mike Forti (also known as “M40”). I have over 20 years experience in wilderness survival, disaster preparedness and many related subjects. I am an avid hiker, hunter and camper.

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m40 s wilderness survival class

M40’s Wilderness Survival Class

INTRODUCTION

My name is Mike Forti(also known as “M40”).

I have over 20 years experience in wilderness survival, disaster preparedness and many related subjects.

I am an avid hiker, hunter and camper.

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M40’s Wilderness Survival Class

I am a Gulf War veteran, and a former USAF Airborne Middle East Intelligence Operator.

I am a graduate of Wilderness Survival, Water Survival and Special Survival courses at the United States Air Force Survival School, Fairchild AFB, WA.

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M40’s Wilderness Survival Class

My websites see millions of hits per month and I get email from all over the world.

I am the owner and webmaster of some of the top ranked wilderness survival websites, including m4040.com and m40survival.com

wilderness survival class

Wilderness Survival Class

Who Needs To Learn About Survival? EVERYONE.

NEWSFLASH - Sep 11, 2008 ... Former UFC middleweight champion and avid outdoorsman, Evan Tanner, whose body was found in the Palo Verde mountains on Monday, is believed to have died of heat exhaustion... NEWSFLASH - Feb 26, 2008 ... A Taylor man reported missing nearly six weeks before his body was found in Ypsilanti Township in January died from exposure... NEWSFLASH - An outdoorsman whose body was found Oct. 13 after an intensive two- week search in Shenandoah National Park, died of exposure, officials said ... NEWSFLASH - Outdoorsman died of exposure Dec 16, 2008 ... The man who went missing in Albemarle in late September and was found dead 12 days later succumbed to the elements... NEWSFLASH - Dec 23, 2008 ... Pacifica woman could have died from exposure, police say... NEWSFLASH - Dec 15, 2008 ... Man missing in Shenandoah National Park died from exposure. Though it was only early October, the temperature was unseasonably cool for the mountains... NEWSFLASH - Mon., Dec. 22, 2008 - Associated Press CHEYENNE, Okla. - The Oklahoma Highway Patrol says a Cheyenne man died of exposure after being trapped in his car... NEWSFLASH - Jun 10, 2008 ... A day hike up Mount Rainier turned into tragedy for a 31-year-old Seattle software engineer who died of exposure early Tuesday after getting ... NEWSFLASH - 12/26/2008 - McLean County officials say an autopsy shows a man found dead on a county road earlier this week died of exposure after his vehicle got stuck... NEWSFLASH - Oct 5, 2008 ... Exposure suspected in death of Pacific Crest Trail hiker ... NEWSFLASH - February 12, 2008 Search continues for 2 missing goose hunters, 3rd died of exposure ... an autopsy of the third man, whose body was found Sunday, showed he died of exposure... NEWSFLASH - Laguna Beach Teacher May Have Died of Exposure, Officials Say ... NEWSFLASH - Search crews confirmed Tuesday that a body found beneath a rock overhang... NEWSFLASH - Dec 22, 2008 ... A woman found frozen and partially covered in snow Sunday morning  died from cold exposure, an autopsy determined. ... NEWSFLASH - Bowling Green: A coroner in northern Kentucky says two women died of exposure after becoming lost. Hunters found... NEWSFLASH - December 27, 2007 - Police: WestConn athlete died of exposure... NEWSFLASH - Jan 2, 2007 An 18-year-old Alberta youth was found dead, likely from exposure, after wandering away from a New Year's Eve house party... NEWSFLASH - Dec 22, 2007 ... Mason City - A rural Plymouth man apparently died of exposure following an auto accident Tuesday, medical examiners said... NEWSFLASH - Feb 21, 2006 ... A couple who died after becoming stranded in a blizzard on a mountain are thought to have died from exposure ... NEWSFLASH - Dec 7, 2006 ... CNET editor James Kim died of exposure and hypothermia as he sought help for his snowbound wife and children, authorities said Thursday... NEWSFLASH - A Santa Ana schoolteacher who became lost in rugged terrain near Idyllwild died of exposure and dehydration, according to an autopsy report completed ... NEWSFLASH - Herald Local News: AG: Boy died of exposure, not foul play... NEWSFLASH - PORT ORCHARD: South Kitsap County man died of exposure, police say ... NEWSFLASH – An experienced outdoorsman

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Wilderness Survival Class

QUESTION:

What is the Single Most Important Survival Tool?

ANSWER:

KNOWLEDGE.

Basic working knowledge of wilderness survival and preparedness saves many thousands of lives every year. Anyone who spends time away from civilization should learn at least the basic skills that can keep them alive when things go wrong.

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Wilderness Survival Class

How to AVOID Survival Situations.

Be mentally and physically prepared for all eventualities.

- The goal of this class is to give you the right knowledge, which will allow you to be mentally and physically prepared for emergency survival situations. People who are not prepared tend to panic, and PANIC KILLS. Being calm and able to think your way through a difficult situation will save your life.

Tell someone responsible exactly where you’re going and exactly when to expect you back.

- I cannot stress this enough. Whether you’re going camping, hiking, hunting or simply for a walk in the woods… TELL SOMEONE.

And finally…

Know the area you’re heading into…

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Wilderness Survival Class

Knowing the area you’ll be traveling through is extremely important.

Google, Yahoo, MapQuest, and other online tools enable you to make terrain and satellite image maps of pretty much ANYWHERE you want.

There is NO EXCUSE for not having a map of the area you are traveling.

Having a map of the area, a compass, and a little bit of experience in navigation…

can save your life.

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Wilderness Survival Class

Setting Survival Priorities with“The Rule of 3’s”

The Rule of 3’s Says…

It takes as little as 3 Minutes… to die of Severe Injury.

It takes as little as 3 Hours… to die of Exposure.

It takes as little as 3 Days… to die of Thirst.

It takes as little as 3 Weeks… to die of Hunger.

Let’s examine each of these...

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Wilderness Survival Class

Setting Survival Priorities with“The Rule of 3’s”

3 Minute Rule: It takes as little as 3 Minutes to die of severe injury or lack of air.

Your very first priority in a survival situation is to address immediate first aid needs. If you or a companion cannot breathe, or are bleeding profusely, death can come in as little as 3 minutes.

This is not a medical course, so I will leave first aid training to professionals, but suffice it to say that everyone should know the basics of how to clear an airway and how to stop or slow heavy bleeding.

Once you’ve addressed this first priority, you’re ready to address the 3 Hour Rule… Shelter and/or Fire.

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Wilderness Survival Class

Setting Survival Priorities with“The Rule of 3’s”

3 Hour Rule: It takes as little as 3 Hours to die of Exposure.

Death from exposure can come in as little as 3 hours, especially in cold, wet climates. As soon as you’ve established that you are in good immediate health, you should begin thinking about shelter and/or fire. Your needs here will depend on the environment and whether you will need to keep dry, warm or cool.

We will go into more depth on both shelter and fire later in this course because they are extremely important.

Once you’ve addressed this priority, you’re ready to address the 3 Day Rule… Water.

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Wilderness Survival Class

Setting Survival Priorities with“The Rule of 3’s”

3 DAY Rule: It takes as little as 3 Days to die of Thirst.

Death from dehydration can come in as little as 3 days, especially in desert climates. Here in the Northeast, it would likely take quite a bit longer. Once you’ve got shelter and fire, you’ll want to start thinking about where you can find water.

We will go into more depth on water procurement later in this course because it is an important need.

Once you’ve addressed this priority, you’re ready to address the 3 Week Rule… Food.

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Wilderness Survival Class

Setting Survival Priorities with“The Rule of 3’s”

3 WEEK Rule: It takes as little as 3 Weeks to die of Hunger.

Death from hunger can come in as little as 3 weeks, depending on the person. Most healthy people will last longer.

This is why you should IGNORE most of what you see on “Survivorman” and “Man vs. Wild”. Food is your LAST concern, and has very little to do with the subject of survival.

We will go into a little (but not much) more depth on food procurement later in this course, but it is NOT an important need.

Now that we’ve covered the rule of threes, let’s examine some details on how we can fill each of these needs.

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Wilderness Survival Class

If you are indeed prepared, you will have at least a few items that you carry with you into the wilderness.

These might include a sheet of very thin plastic, and possibly some fishing line, cord or string.

The plastic sheet can make building a waterproof shelter fast and easy. Without this, it takes many hours to build a decent waterproof shelter.

SHELTER – How to find or build it fast.

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Wilderness Survival Class

This is a very basic tarp shelter that resembles a pup tent. All you need is some cord, some plastic sheet, 4 rocks to secure the corners and a couple trees to secure your line.

Adding a nice, foot deep layer of leaves inside for bedding will keep you warm and comfortable.

SHELTER – How to find or build it fast.

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Wilderness Survival Class

If you don’t have much with you that can be used to build a shelter, you may want to search for a ready made shelter.

This upturned tree’s roots form a natural canopy. While this is not an ideal shelter, it will not take long to add some branches and brush to make this into a comfortable den.

SHELTER – How to find or build it fast.

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Wilderness Survival Class

This natural rock ledge is a shelter just waiting to happen.

Leaning more roof poles and then piling leaves and brush on top would turn this into a comfortable place to hole up in a storm.

SHELTER – How to find or build it fast.

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Wilderness Survival Class

This is a “lean-to” style shelter, sometimes called a “debris hut”. With a little practice, you can make one of these in less than an hour.

It should be just big enough for you and not much else.

Add at least a foot of leaf cover inside and out, and you’ll stay warm and dry.

SHELTER – How to find or build it fast.

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Wilderness Survival Class

This is a “dugout” style shelter, sometimes called a “sniper hole”. With a little practice, you can make one of these in less than an hour.

It should be just big enough for you and not much else.

Add at least a foot of leaf cover inside and out, and you’ll stay warm and dry.

Look for a natural hole or gulley because you don’t want to do a lot of digging.

SHELTER – How to find or build it fast.

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Wilderness Survival Class

A thick evergreen can provide a good basis for shelter in the wintertime.

Adding some packed snow walls around the outside and maybe some additional roof cover would improve it.

SHELTER – How to find or build it fast.

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Wilderness Survival Class

Fire has many uses in a survival situation. Besides keeping you warm, it is used to provide light, purify water, as a signal so that you can be rescued, and to provide a general sense of well being.

There are a few key differences between campfires and “Survival Fires”. Let’s examine these one by one.

Whereas you are boy scouts, I will not go into detail on how to build a fire.

I will assume you know about tinder, kindling and fuel, and that you should gather a large amount of each before you actually light the fire.

FIRE FOR SURVIVAL

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Wilderness Survival Class

LAZY MAN FIRE

The fire shown here is called a “lazy-man fire”. As you can see, the wood has not been cut or split.

The wood is fed in as it burns. This saves you a lot of critical time and energy.

This kind of fire must be watched to prevent it from spreading, and be sure to feed everything into the fire pit before you go to sleep.

FIRE FOR SURVIVAL

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Wilderness Survival Class

DAKOTA PIT FIRE

The fire shown here is called a “Dakota pit fire”. This is used in windy environments where you need to keep a fire going with very little fuel and want to maximize the heat you gain from it.

Huddling over the pit for warmth will allow the heat from even a small fire to warm you.

These are most often used by US pilots downed behind enemy lines because the light cannot be seen.

These can be used to warm a shelter, but use caution.

FIRE FOR SURVIVAL

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Wilderness Survival Class

FINDING WATER

In much of North America, water is plentiful. In mountainous areas, just continue to walk downhill and you will eventually find water. Like anything else, water obeys the laws of gravity.

Watch animals or follow their tracks… they need water as much as you. This will usually lead to water. Birds also tend to congregate near water.

If you are getting water from streams or ponds, boil before drinking, or use water purification tablets.

WATER PROCUREMENT FOR SURVIVAL

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Wilderness Survival Class

PURIFYING WATER

Snow or ice melt water is safe to drink… and don’t eat the yellow snow.

If you are getting water from streams or ponds in warmer weather, it will need to be purified before drinking.

You can:

- Boil the water

- Use water purification

(tablets or drops)

- Make a water filter

- Use ground filtering

Let’s discuss these methods…

WATER PROCUREMENT FOR SURVIVAL

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Wilderness Survival Class

PURIFYING WATER

USING WATER PURIFICATION TABLETS AND DROPS

Water purification tablets and drops are found in most sporting goods and outdoors stores.

These are very small and easy to carry, and should be in every outdoorsman’s personal survival kit. (We will discuss Survival Kits later in this presentation.)

Follow the instructions that are printed on the bottle of the tablets or drops.

This method relies on you having a suitable water container. (This should also be found in your Survival Kit.)

NOTE: If you travel in wilderness areas, consider a military canteen and cup combo like those shown here:

WATER PROCUREMENT FOR SURVIVAL

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Wilderness Survival Class

PURIFYING WATER

USING A WATER FILTER.

Water filters are becoming very common in camping and outdoors stores. If you spend a lot of time in the wilderness, consider buying and using a water filter.

MAKING A WATER FILTER?

Believe it or not, you can MAKE a charcoal water filtration system that will purify all but the nastiest water.

WATER PROCUREMENT FOR SURVIVAL

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Wilderness Survival Class

DIGGING FOR PURE WATER?

You can use the ground to filter water for you. If you go back at least 20 feet from the water’s edge, you can dig down to water level.

It may appear murky at first. Either wait a little while for the sediment to settle out, or you can continue to scoop water until it clears up.

A shallow bank is best for this, otherwise you’ll have to dig really deep.

WATER PROCUREMENT FOR SURVIVAL

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Wilderness Survival Class

Okay… we’ve finally come to food… your LAST priority.

Remembering a few simple things will help you to find edibles in the wilderness.

No matter what you’ve seen on “Survivorman” or “Man vs. Wild”, DO NOT eat plants in the wild unless you are ABSOLUTELY sure of what you’re doing.

There are many plants that look just like edible plants… but are POISONOUS. Eating plants doesn’t provide you with much energy, and the risk of getting sick or worse is simply too high. AVOID PLANTS.

So… what SHOULD you eat???

FOOD PROCUREMENT FOR SURVIVAL

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Wilderness Survival Class

If it walks, crawls, swims, slithers or flies, THUMP IT… AND CHOW IT DOWN.

Okay, that may sound a bit simplistic, but it’s pretty near to the truth. Here’s why…

M40’S SIMPLE RULE OF WILDERNESS EATING:

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Wilderness Survival Class

If it walks, crawls, swims, slithers or flies, THUMP IT… AND CHOW IT DOWN.

While MOST plants are harmful to humans…

- ALL fur bearing mammals are EDIBLE.

- ALL insects (6 legs) are EDIBLE.

- ALL birds are EDIBLE.

- Almost all fresh water fish are EDIBLE.

As compared to plants, animals are… BY FAR… the safer food source.

M40’S SIMPLE RULE OF WILDERNESS EATING:

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Wilderness Survival Class

SIGNALING can save your life.

- Signaling is the ability to make yourself bigger, louder, brighter, and more recognizable to those who may be searching for you.

- Smoke from a fire and the light it gives off at night can get you rescued.

- A small flashlight is a great signaling

device for use at night.

- A whistle can be heard from a LONG

distance.

- Bright colors or reflective materials can

help get you rescued.

When building a SURVIVAL KIT, you’ll want

to pack some signaling gear…

IT’S NOT IN THE RULE OF 3’s, BUT IT’S VERY IMPORTANT…

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Wilderness Survival Class

In this section, we will discuss some basic gear that can keep you alive in a survival situation. Most of this gear can be carried in a pocket or in a small belt pouch.

The kit shown here is one that I carry with me whenever I’m hiking, hunting, camping, etc. It has everything I feel I would need to survive if I became lost, injured or otherwise stuck in the woods.

The picture is not complete. There are a few items that are not shown… can anyone guess what’s missing? More on that later…

BUILDING A DECENT WILDERNESS SURVIVAL KIT

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Wilderness Survival Class

ITEM 1 – (Not Shown) Contents, Survival Tips & Guidelines (Printed on Waterproof Paper). A primer to help focus someone on the task in hand. An outline of notes on the Rule of 3’s and some basic survival guidelines. It is also flammable if you cannot find tinder anywhere else.

ITEM 2 – (Not Shown) A Pencil & 3 Blank Sheets of Waterproof Paper (notes for self & others) - This can be very useful for making notes to yourself or to others who may be searching for you. It is also flammable if you cannot find tinder anywhere else.

ITEM 3 - Leatherman Micra. This is a tough little Swiss Army type tool.

ITEM 4 - 550 lb.test Para Cord (20 ft.) - (Not Shown, as it is wrapped around the knife sheath & handle).

See more about Para Cord on the next slide.

BUILDING A DECENT WILDERNESS SURVIVAL KIT

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Wilderness Survival Class

The uses of Para Cord in a survival situation are too numerous to fully list. As an example, use it for shelter, whether for tying frame members together, or for stringing up a tarp between trees. Also use it for snares and for building other weapons.

I would recommend more than the 20 feet specified in the kit (I personally switch out all my boot laces with para cord as soon as I get them). The Para cord is stronger than any bootlaces sold.

True Para Cord is constructed of an outer sheath which houses 7 inner strands. Each inner strand is 50 pound test, and the outer sheathing is rated at about 200 pounds. As such, in an emergency situation, if more string were needed, one can remove the inner strands, and the outer sheathing will still serve admirably as shoelaces. If your bootlaces are each about 3 feet long, then you would be able to gain more than 40 feet of string from the laces if needed.

Make sure that what you get has 7 inner strands, and is 550 lb test. This typically sells for about $5 for a 100 ft length. This takes up a good bit of space in a kit, so I wrap about 20-25 feet of it around the outside of the sheath instead of packing it inside the pouch.

USES OF PARA CORD IN A WILDERNESS SURVIVAL KIT

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Wilderness Survival Class

ITEM 5 – A Small, LOUD whistle for signaling. This whistle has a backup compass as well.

ITEM 6 - Small Bic lighter, You can start a heck of a lot more fires with this as compared to a comparable volume of matches. As backups, I also include the magnesium / flint bar, which, with a little practice, can start thousands of fires, and the magnifying glass, which can start limitless fires.

ITEM 7 - Magnesium/Flint bar Fire starter (also use as signaling device) - This item is about $5-$6 in any camping goods store, Wal-Mart, etc. With a little practice this little item can start thousands of fires. Just shave the magnesium with a knife (or file if you're carrying a multi-tool that has a file). collect all the shavings into a pile about the size of a dime. Run a NON-SHARPENED corner of your knife down the flint. The magnesium ignites with a flame like a blow torch, and will burn for several seconds.

ITEM 8 - Mini LED Flashlight - This is a very bright little light, and is great for short durations. For longer duration, build a fire. These can also be used for signaling at night. They take very little space, and each lasts for quite a while.

BUILDING A DECENT WILDERNESS SURVIVAL KIT

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Wilderness Survival Class

ITEMS 9 and 10 - 30ft Fishing Line and 6 Fish Hooks (15 lb test line) - You're better off setting lines on the heavier line (80 lb test line below) and leaving them unattended. Setting snares and baited lines out, and then checking from time to time will net your best results.

ITEM 11 - 50ft Fishing Line (Hvy 80 lb test) (snares, shelter making, etc) - Spiderwire Fusion brand, ultra-High Performance saltwater line. Extremely strong, and has about a thousand uses, including shelter building, snare making, unattended fishing purposes and more.

ITEM 12 – (Not Shown) Mirror (Signaling, medical, grooming) - Great for signaling at long distances, and can also be used for self inspection (checking wounds).

ITEM 13 – Compass - It is a good idea for everyone to learn at least the basics of using a compass, and to have a good idea of basic directional orientation before heading into the wilderness.

ITEM 14 – 3 Needles and Heavy Thread – Used for mending clothing and stitching wounds.

BUILDING A DECENT WILDERNESS SURVIVAL KIT

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Wilderness Survival Class

ITEM 15 - Safety Pins (3) - Used for quick repairs of clothing and other gear. Can also be used as additional emergency fishhooks.

ITEM 16 - Survival Blanket - This is used as an emergency blanket. It reflects body heat back to you. It is also great for signaling, as it will reflect a lot of sunlight. This can also be used to waterproof your shelter, or to collect rainwater.

ITEM 17 - Painter's Tarp 9'x7' - This is a thin plastic sheet that can be used for a variety of purposes. It can be used with a little para cord as a Tarp Shelter, or as a waterproofing for the roof of whatever you construct for shelter. It can be laid out to collect rainwater, used as a poncho, or employed as a Solar Still.

ITEM 18 - Water purifying straw - Will purify 20 -25 Gallons of water (depending on water).

ITEM 19 - Water Purification Tablets (12) – Each tablet purifies 1-2 quarts of water depending on how dirty. Iodine based, so they can be used for sterilizing injuries in the field. One tablet in a teaspoon of water makes a strong Iodine topical solution / salve. Thin further to irrigate wounds.

BUILDING A DECENT WILDERNESS SURVIVAL KIT

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Wilderness Survival Class

ITEM 20 - 5 feet of duct tape, wrapped around ball point pen - Repairs to just about anything. Patch holes in tarps, fix a point to an arrow or spear, bandage cuts and scrapes, make butterfly bandages for serious wounds. Pen is used as a backup to the pencil.

ITEM 21 - Surgical Suture, Sterile - Used to stitch wounds (use only if you have medical training).

ITEM 22 - anti-diarrhea pills (4), Motrin (6) in a watertight capsule - Having severe pain or diarrheic symptoms in a survival situation could be DEADLY.

ITEM 23 - Ziploc Freezer Bags (2) - Use as canteens, waterproof storage for kit, and other items.

ITEM 24 - Slingshot kit - The Slingshot Kit consists of a leather pouch and surgical tubing. This can be attached to a forked stick with ParaCord to make a slingshot.

ITEM 25 - Small Rectangular Cooking Tin - Primarily used as a cooking vessel, but doubles as tough container to pack the kit in.

BUILDING A DECENT WILDERNESS SURVIVAL KIT

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Wilderness Survival Class

ITEM 26 - Fresnel Lens - A credit card sized magnifying glass, used to inspect small items, or to start fires. It packs very small.

ITEM 27 - (NOT SHOWN) Scalpel Blades (2) in sterile wrapping. These pack extremely small and have a multitude of uses, from medical to skinning and gutting game to fine whittling tasks.

ITEM 28 - Fifty Dollar Bill - (NOT SHOWN) Imagine getting lost, and eventually finding your way out of the woods far from where you intended to be. It's nice to have some cab fare, or money for a Big Mac... after a few days eating bugs, it would be a shame to emerge next to a 7-11, and have no money for food.

ITEM 29 - MilSpec Snare Wire (10 ft) - This stuff has a multitude of uses, from snaring to tripwire, to hanging food items over a fire for cooking.

NOTES: The standard and heavy fishing line and the Snare Wire are all wrapped around nails. The nails can be used for shelter building, spear points and other tools. The thread is wrapped around the three needles. I used a cordless drill to make the winding of all this a lot easier.

BUILDING A DECENT WILDERNESS SURVIVAL KIT

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Wilderness Survival Class

What’s missing here is a good, sturdy knife, machete or hatchet. A good blade is used to cut and split wood, make tinder shavings, clear trail and brush, and perhaps most important, to make shelter and bedding. For now, your ability to carry a blade will depend on your parent’s discretion.

A good blade should be able to chop deeply and effortlessly.

Cutting tree boughs for shelter should be fast work.

Your life may depend on putting up that shelter in a hurry.

REMEMBER: A big blade can do everything that a small blade can do, but a small blade is useless for BIG tasks!

BUILDING A DECENT WILDERNESS SURVIVAL KIT

survival quiz

Survival Quiz

1. Which list of survival needs seems to be prioritized in the correct order?a) Locate Water, build shelter, address injuries, build fire, locate food.b) Address injuries, build shelter, find food, find water, build fire.c) Locate food, locate water, build shelter, build fire, address injuries.d) Address injuries, build shelter, build fire, locate water, locate food.

2. By the "Rule of 3's", without Shelter and/or fire, you could die in as little as:a) Three Minutesb) Three Hoursc) Three Daysd) Three Weeks

3. By the "Rule of 3's", without food, you could die in as little as:a) Three Minutesb) Three Hoursc) Three Daysd) Three Weeks

4. By the "Rule of 3's", without addressing Medical Emergencies, you could die in as little as:a) Three Minutesb) Three Hoursc) Three Daysd) Three Weeks

5. By the "Rule of 3's", without water, you could die in as little as:a) Three Minutesb) Three Hoursc) Three Daysd) Three Weeks

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Survival Quiz

6. A good way to procure water is to:a) Cut up a bunch of plants, squeeze out the sap and drink it.b) Make a divining rod from a forked stick, walk around until the stick dips, then dig in that spot.c) Kill some game and drink the blood.d) Walk downhill.

7. The best food sources available in the wilderness are:a) Mushrooms, moss and fungal growth.b) Small, green leafy plants.c) Insects, and small furry animals.d) Grasses and the bark of young trees.

8. The first thing you should do if you want to build a fire is:a) chop down several trees to provide logs for your fire.b) make 3 piles of dry material sorted into tinder, twigs and firewood.c) take out your lighter and test all the materials around you to determine what will burn.d) Rub two sticks together vigorously for a few minutes to make a red-hot coal, then blow on it until you get a flame.

9. The key to building shelter from the cold is that:a) it is so small that you can barely fit into it.b) it is located on the banks of a flowing stream.c) it is constructed from only dead plant matter so you don't have to kill any trees or plants.d) it is in a field so that it can be warmed by the sun.

10. The best way to render water safe to drink is:a) Remove your tee shirt, sock or other cotton material, and use it to filter the water.b) Leave it out in the sunlight so that the sun's UV rays can kill any microorganisms.c) Boil it.d) Add green grass and leaves and allow the plants to naturally kill any microbes.

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Survival Quiz

11. You're hiking, and suddenly realize that you've become lost. Night is fast approaching and the weather is getting cold. Rain is starting to fall. The best thing to do is:a) Choose a direction, and start jogging in hopes of finding civilization before the storm hits.b) Stop. Build a big fire, and await rescuers.c) Start collecting rainwater because you may need it later, and see if you can find some food to warm you up.d) Start looking for some shelter from the rain, as you dial 911 on your cell phone.

12. The best and most efficient tool in a survival kit for quickly building fire is:a) A small disposable Bic lighter.b) A hollow knife handle full of waterproof matches.c) Flint and steel.d) A knife with which you can make a bow drill to start your fires.

13. Which of the following is most correct?a) A little blade can do everything that a big blade can, and is the best survival tool.b) A big blade can do everything that a little blade can, and is the best survival tool.c) Blade size doesn't really matter in a wilderness survival situation.d) A blade is useless in a wilderness survival situation.

14. Upon finding yourself in a dangerous survival situation, the best thing to do is:a) React immediately, and start doing whatever you think will help to take your mind off the situation.b) Start a fire to warm you up and signal for help.c) Remain calm, take inventory of what tools and information you have, and then prioritize your actions to meet your most important needs first.d) Sit down and then bend over so that your head is between your knees. Keep bending until you can kiss your butt goodbye.

15. The most reliable natural navigation method is to:a) Use the sun and stars to get your bearings.b) Determine North by the moss growth on tree trunks.c) Continue walking towards the moon in order to maintain a constant direction.d) Follow the tracks of local wildlife because animals have a good sense of direction.

survival quiz46

Survival Quiz

16. Pick the best choice ... A small, but practical survival kit would likely contain:a) Lots of food, water and matches.b) A hatchet, a couple of sandwiches and a GameBoy with good batteries.c) A cell phone, knife, plastic garbage bag, and a Bic lighter.d) Fish hooks, matches, twine, a swiss army knife, paperclips and a bottle of water.

17. If you are lost and cold, the best means of warming up is:a) Start hunting. You can wear the fur pelt of an animal for warmth.b) Build a fire, heat some water and drink it.c) Build a large shelter. The work will warm you up.d) Use your light saber to open up the belly of your tauntaun. Climb inside there... sure, it smells like crap, but it will keep you alive.

18. When you are lost in the wilderness, a crucial factor is:a) conserving your energy, and sleeping when you can.b) finding lots of edible plants and animals.c) to keep moving so you can eventually find your way out.d) keep clean and bathe whenever you can.

19. Which of the following statements is TRUE?a) Almost all plants (except mushrooms and fungus) are safe to eat.b) Almost all fur bearing mammals and 6 legged insects are safe to eat.c) Almost all flowing water is safe to drink.d) Almost all fish and reptiles are safe to eat.

20. The most important tool you can bring into the wilderness is:a) A large knife, hatchet or machete.b) A lighter, matches or other means of building a fire.c) Quality, layered waterproof clothing.d) A calm, positive outlook and a brain brimming with practical survival knowledge.

survival quiz47

Survival Quiz

SURVIVAL QUIZ ANSWERS.

1 is D: Refer to the Rule of 3's.

2 is B: Exposure can kill very quickly, especially in cold, wet climates.

3 is D: Food is your LAST priority.

4 is A: Heavy bleeding and other injuries can kill you very quickly, and are your number one concern.

5 is C: Lack of water can kill in a few days, especially in hot, desert environments.

6 is D: Water flows downhill and collects in valleys and low areas. Go there to find it.

7 is C: There are many, many poisonous plants, but almost all fur bearing mammals and insects (6 legs) are safe to eat.

8 is B: Always collect twice as much dry wood and tinder as you think you'll need before attempting to light it.

9 is A: The smaller your shelter, the better... your body heat will help to warm it.

10 is C: Shy of chemical treatment, the best way to make water safe to drink is boiling it.

11 is D: Being properly prepared means you have a cell phone, a radio or other means of communication.

12 is A: A Bic lighter can start a heck of a lot more fires than matches. It's quick and easy to use, and therefore the best tool.

13 is B: A big blade CAN do everything a small blade can, but little blades cannot chop, split, slash or blaze trails.

14 is C: Using your brain to determine the best course of action is always a good bet... and not just in survival situations.

15 is A: Moss is not reliable, animals go in circles, and the moon traverses the sky... the sun and stars are your best direction finders.

16 is C: This kit contains the means to address your important needs (contacting help chief among them).

17 is B: Hot liquids will warm a body very quickly.

18 is A: Conserving your energy, and sleeping when you can will keep your outlook positive. A well rested body works a lot better.

19 is B: Avoid plants, reptiles and strange looking fish... stick to fur bearing mammals and 6 legged insects for safety.

20 is D: Your brain is what sets you ABOVE all other animals on the food chain.

questions comments

QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?

This was a basic survival course. With further reading, study and a good bit of practice, you CAN become a wilderness survival pro!

I value your input on any part of this course. Please feel free to contact me with questions and comments at:

m40@m40survival.com