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    1. Looking Deeper at Literacy Weaving the Reading and Writing Together Nebraska June 23 & 24, 2009 Leslie Blauman lblauman@aol.com

    2. Reading Comprehension Strategies (Thinking Strategies) Background Knowledge Visualizing/Sensory Images Monitoring Meaning and Comprehension Fix-Up Strategies Inferring Asking Questions Determining Importance in Text Synthesizing

    3. From Chapter One - How Did You Get the Kids This Far? The Everything Guide to Teaching Reading and Writing L. Blauman Copyright Pending - Leslie Blauman - for Heinemann How Did You Get the Kids This Far? The Everything Guide to Teaching Reading and Writing

    4. * Students deserve honest feedback Teachers must trust in the abilities of their students. Students must trust the teacher Teachers must believe in the intellectual capacity of children Risk-taking must be encouraged in the classroom. Talking and listening must be taught, practiced, and encompass a large part of the day Teachers must know their students not only academically, but on the personal level. Teachers must provide honest feedback to students to guide their growth Authentic assessment must inform and drive instruction. Teachers must teach the learner.

    5. * Student independence needs to be taught, modeled and practiced Teachers must provide explicit instruction using the gradual release method Teachers must scaffold learning and instruction for students to be successful Use of time is essential. Lingering is valued - rushing through tasks to "cover" them is a waste of instructional time. Students need choice and ownership to enable them to be independent The classroom environment must create safety for risk-taking Teachers must trust students to make good choices

    6. * Students are capable of high-level thinking - every day! Teachers cannot underestimate students' abilities and potential Teachers must say, "Yes, my students can do that!" Teachers must operate under the belief that every single child can work and think at the highest level. Students need choice and ownership to enable them to be high-level, critical thinkers. Teachers must provide time for students to think. Teachers and students must bring passion to their work Teachers must teach the learner.

    7. Key Elements for successful reading: Time Talk Tasks Texts Teaching Tests (assessments/rubrics

    8. Thinking about setting up the year; Logistics Environment climate

    9. Examining our classrooms Based on the research of Richard L. Allington

    10. TIME children reading and writing for as much as half the school day. extensive practice of reading

    11. TEXTS rich supply of texts appropriate levels books matched to reading abilities

    12. TEACHING active instruction modeling and demonstration of useful strategies good readers use explicit explanation direct teaching foster transfer of strategies to students independent use

    13. TALK teacher/student talk student/student conversational open-ended

    14. TASKS longer assignments complex tasks student choice student ownership student engagement

    15. TESTING effort and improvement rubrics student self-assessment

    16. Holding our Thinking "Tracks in the Snow"

    17. Coding the text: I for Important L for learned something new * for interesting information or an interesting fact Ah hah! when a big idea surfaces S for surprising information S!!!!! for shocking information !!!! for an exciting part Other Ideas for Coding:

    18. Our PURPOSE for reading determines what we identify as being important. Are we trying to: remember important information? learn new information and build background knowledge? distinguish whats important from whats interesting? discern a theme, opinion, or perspective? answer a specific question? determine the authors messageIs it to inform, persuade, or entertain? Goudvis and Harvey

    19. ITS ALL ABOUT MAKING CONNECTIONS: Background Knowledge Prior Knowledge, Schema

    20. text to self text to text text to author text to world

    21. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: before, during and after reading build connections around the text distinguish between meaningful connections and those that are not

    22. The Batsmen were merciless against the Bowlers. The Bowlers placed their men in slips and covers. But to no avail. The Batsmen hit one four after another along with an occasional six. Not once did their balls hit their stumps or get caught.

    23. 2. With hocked gems financing him, our hero bravely defied all scornful laughter that tried to prevent his scheme. Your eyes deceived he had said. An egg not a table correctly typifies this unexplored planet. Now three sturdy sisters sought proof. Forging along sometimes through calm vastness, yet more often over turbulent peaks and valleys. Days became weeks as many doubters spread fearful rumors about the edge. At last from somewhere, welcomed winged creatures appeared signifying momentous success.

    24. Graphic Organizers

    25. Vocabulary

    26. Asking Questions CLARIFYING, LITERAL, INFERENTIAL

    27. Asking Questions Before, during, and after reading Clarify meaning literal inferential locate specific information in the text on the page in my head Sets a purpose for reading

    28. GOOD READERS: Ask questions before reading Determine the authors style, intent, and format to help create questions Monitor questions, predict answers and read to find the answers Focus attention on specific components of the text Understand that asking questions deepens their understanding of text Connect asking questions in reading to other real-world activities Understand that sharing and discussing and listening to others questions deepens understanding (community) and leads to new thinking at a deeper level.

    29. Thick and Thin Questions

    30. Questioning Graphic Organizers

    31. Determining Importance in Text What should we remember? Whats important? Whats interesting

    32. Nancie Atwell, In the Middle Things I look for when I read nonfiction: Text Organizers use index, table of contents, glossary, chapter headings, and appendix to find information Illustrations and photographs look at these to gain deeper meanings

    33. Graphics use diagrams, cutaways, overlays, maps, tables, charts, keys, legends, graphs and framed text Textual Clues use writing clues: for example, for instance, in fact, in conclusion, most important, but, therefore, such as, and on the other hand Fonts and Special Effects look for BOLD lettering, italics, bullets, color print captions and labels

    34. Visualizing Creating mental images Creating Sensory images

    35. Creating mental images Motion Picture in your head Before, during and after reading Created from the readers Background Knowledge Created from shared experiences with others Images evolve as students read

    36. Synthesizing: Tying it all together Making the learning last

    37. Combining summarizing, background knowledge, inferences, and new thinking to make sense of the text Thinking evolves as readers interact with text Readers share, recommend, critique, and evaluate books as a way to synthesize Readers synthesize to understand more clearly what they have read

    38. MONITORING MEANING AND COMREHENSION Am I Understanding what Im reading? At the literal level? At the inferential level?

    39. Monitoring Meaning and Comprehension Before, during and after reading Is there a PURPOSE for the reading? Are you interacting with the text? Is your brain turned on to what youre reading? Do you understand the words? Are you visualizing? Is there a movie going on in your head? Can you retell what youve read? Are you asking questions and making predictions?

    40. Youre not comprehending if: Youve been reading and you dont remember anything Youre thinking about something else You have no clue what youve just read Youre pretend reading The text is too hard There are too many words that interfere with your understanding

    41. Fix Up Strategies What to do when you dont understand what youre reading!

    42. Fix Up Strategies: Use the five finger test to choose the appropriate level book. Use picture clues Stop and think about it Retell/summarize what you do understand Reread Keep reading Make a prediction Read it out loud Use your background knowledge Draw or make a picture Ask questions Adjust your reading rate speed up or slow down Talk with someone about it Ask for help

    43. At the WORD level: Sound it out Chunk it Use context clues Skip it, read ahead then come back and try to figure it out what makes sense in that context? Mark the page (post-it) and come back to the word ask for help, or look it up in the dictionary

    44. Inferring Making Inferences Digging Deeper, getting below the surface or the literal level!

    45. Inferential reading occurs by Thinking about whats next/what to expect Gathering clues together to figure out what is going on Confirming or disconfirming predictions Laughing Building evidence about a character/setting/conflict Feeling an emotion/reacting Answering a question not directly found in the text Pulling information leaked throughout the text to form new thinking Seeing clearly a scene/description Speculating Forming a educated guess/opinion Filling in omitted details/making elaborations Understanding symbolism/similes/metaphors Forming own unique interpretation Using reason and logic to come up with new ideas Drawing a conclusion/outcome Making analogies Forming a judgment Connecting conclusions with background knowledge Figuring out authors unstated intent Weaving our own sense into the text Working with information in a new way to reapply, recall later Arguing with the author Feeling empathy for characters/conflict Constructing life lessons/building knowledge Taking action/joining a response group, writing to newspaper Thinking about the book even when its ended. Appreciating reading because youre working with the author to create meaning

    46. Starting the Year off right. Where do you start? Building a Literate Classroom

    47. Beginning of the Year Foundational Mini-Lessons By Leslie Blauman Copyright pending Heinemann

    48. *When (or why) do we drop books *Recommending books - through a literate community *Choosing the right book (self-selected texts) *Accessing the classroom library and "shopping" our book tubs *The "Someday" List *What makes Great Listening? *Grand Conversations

    49. *Talking about books (partner conferences and "compass" shares) *Rules and Rituals *DEAR expectations *Stamina *Marking and holding our thinking *Living Literate Lives *Knowing when you're understanding, and knowing when you're not understanding *Rules and Rituals

    50. The BLB (Book Lovers Book)

    51. Table of Contents Reading Comprehension Strategies Class Thoughts

    52. MINI-LESSONS

    53. LIT LOG

    54. ANCHOR TEXTS

    55. Directed Instruction/Guided Reading Constructed Response

    56. Book Clubs

    57. Reflections Glossary Vocabulary

    58. Books Ive Read Someday List

    59. Lessons from Leslie Blauman: Conference questions to help students construct meaning.

    60. What are you thinking as you read that page? You've just done a literal retelling. How did your perspective change? What did you see differently on the second read? So what do you think I want you to do? Yes, just as we've turned to one another to share in our group discussions, that's the same sort of thinking you need to leave behind in the margins. Find one sentence you really like. Look at it like a writer, why do you like it? From this list we've generated, what are you going to do to make your writing better?

    61. What did you do to fix your understanding? Walk me through how you figured out this word. What can you take away from figuring this out that you can use in future reading? Yes, sometimes one word makes a huge difference in comprehension! As your reading teacher, do you think that I think you understand this page? Why not? Is there anything else you need from me to be successful? Scripted by Chryse Hutchins

    62. THOUGHTS ON SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION Needs Based Interest Based (student chosen -e.g. Book Clubs) Strategy Based

    63. TEXTS: - HIGH INTEREST Student selected (book clubs) Short Pieces Articles - newspaper, magazines, Time for Kids, National Geographic, etc. Students bring in text to share (usually tied to content) Content Integration Non-Fiction Resources Novels

    64. FLEXIBLE GROUPING/FLEXIBLE SCHEDULING twice a week (or what works for your schedule) 30-45 minutes max - depending on needs/interests

    65. WHAT ABOUT OTHER GROUPINGS? Whole Class Pair Shares "Compass Groups" Individual Conferences

    66. KEYS TO SUCCESS - Model, model, model Gradual Release AND KIDS SET THE NORMS

    67. SO, WHAT IS THE REST OF THE CLASS DOING WHILE THE TEACHER IS WORKING WITH SMALL GROUPS?

    68. START SMALL - make sure you're successful right from the start - stop before the kids get antsy! Meaningful work Extensions of mini-lessons, etc. Work that the students can do independently and be successful! Usually a choice of assignments - when we're starting, the "menu" is short, as the students mature, etc. the span of choices widens. Give the kids time to make thoughtful decisions of how they'll use the time, then do a "Status" with each student committing to at least two choices. When just starting with groups, a "Status" at the end of work time is beneficial to hold kids accountable.

    69. CHOICES Articles, Time for Kids, content work DEAR Reading Responses Vocabulary Writing (writer's notebook, pieces in progress, etc.) Research - notes, drafting, reading, etc. - wherever we are in the process Any other work that we're in the midst of Technology

    70. One of the class norms is that those who are not meeting in group respect the conversation - therefore, they are not allowed to interrupt the group, nor are they to use the time for peer conferences - that's built into the schedule for a later time. 29.

    71. OTHER KEY ELEMENTS: If I'm going to do more than one group, we take a break in-between so that the next group can get prepared and I can circulate throughout the room and check on progress and any other needs. Kids have a desire to go "deeper" with their work - that it is a classroom of learners. They have to feel invested in their work. LINGERING IS HONORED REAL-LIFE WORK (almost all of it - sometimes we have to do the "foundation" stuff - grammar, mechanics, worksheets, but they're usually not a part of this time.)

    72. Setting Up Book Clubs Prerequisites! From How Did You Get the Kids This Far? L. Blauman Copyright pending Heinemann

    73. Model, Model, Model....

    74. Foundational Lessons (setting the groundwork) Great Listening Grand Conversations Marking Text ('Tracks in the Snow') Holding Thinking Transitions Independence

    75. Shared Experiences... "Anchor" Books "Anchor" Charts

    76. Launching a Book Club Steps I use to set one up From How Did You Get the Kids This Far? Leslie Blauman Copyright pending Heinemann

    77. Discussion on what is a book club. Do you or anyone you know participate in a book club? 2. Set up Book Club Norms. These are the rules, and they are developed by the students (with a little direction from me!) These are constantly evolving; after we finish a book club or begin a new one, students revise and add to these rules. Theyre a work in progress!

    78. 3. What makes good conversation? Book Club conversations need to go deeper. If all we do is retell the story (or summarize) were staying on the surface and since weve all read the book, we should all know what happens. The goal is to bring NEW thinking to the group. 4. Book Selection mine (at least at first) What is the purpose for this study? Genre, topic, author, theme, student choice? I find all the multiple copies that fit with the purpose and a variety of reading levels.

    79. 5. Book Talk #1. I give a book talk on each of the choices. Students jot down the titles that they are interested in and might want to read. This helps me narrow choices. 6. Narrow down the book choices depending on the kids' interests. (I usually choose around 6-10 titles at this time.) 7. Book Talk #2. I do another book talk on the remaining books. While I do this, books are on the desks, so kids can look at the books, do a 5 finger test, etc. Students prioritize their top three choices.

    80. 8. Organize Book Clubs usually 3 to 5 clubs three to eight children in a group things to think about: how often to meet, length of meeting, how to "listen in". 9. First Meeting (hold thinking on chart paper) give students their books activate schema/background knowledge ask questions review norms students choose how far to read before the next meeting 10. Book Clubs begin - usually once a week for a minimum of a half hour. 11. Students must come prepared to the meetings with post-its, bookmarks, their BLB, etc.

    81. Model for the first few times how the Book Club should operate (if necessary), then turn it over to the kids. If necessary, I'll step back in. Otherwise I sit on the perimeter and "eavesdrop", scripting what the children say, and facilitate when the need arises. I do push them to "go deeper" with their thinking, and in the initial Book Clubs I'll identify the times when they're doing this. 13. Wrap up and set reading amount for next meeting. 14. When the Book Club has finished, go back to the original anchor chart. Answer any questions that are still unanswered (the students usually refer to this chart each time they meet.) Ask "Where do we go from here?" and then off we go!