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Livestock Nutrition

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  1. Livestock Nutrition Ch. 2 Digestion in Animals

  2. Objectives • 1- Describe the nonruminant (monogastric), ruminant, and avian digestive systems. • 2- Describe the process of digestion in animals. • 3- Describe the absorption of nutrients in animals.

  3. Digestive Systems • Digestion is a process that breaks feed down into simple substances that can be absorbed by the body. • This usually involves mechanical, chemical and enzymes. • The compounds are then absorbed into the blood stream.

  4. Digestive tract • Also known as the gastrointestinal tract or the alimentary tract. • Begins at the mouth and ends at the anus.

  5. Three kinds of digestive systems. • Non-ruminant (monogastric). • Ruminant (polygastric). • Avian

  6. Non-ruminant digestive systems. • Swine, horses & humans. • Single compartment stomach. • Includes, mouth, teeth, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, pancreas, cecum, large intestine, rectum and anus.

  7. Parts of Swine Digestive Tract • Parts of the swine digestive system. • Know location and function of each part.

  8. Parts of Horse Digestive System • Know the location and function of each part. • Pay particular attention to the highly adapted cecum.

  9. Mouth, part of digestive system. • The mouth contains the teeth, tongue, and salivary glands. • Chewing action (mechanical part of digestion). • Food is cut and torn in the mouth, then mixed with saliva, which is produced in three different places. • Three paired sets of salivary glands, located under the lower jaw and under the ears.

  10. Mouth • Saliva contains water, mucin, bicarbonate salts and enzymes. • Horse saliva does not contain enzymes. • In swine, saliva contains the enzymes salivary amylase and salivary maltase.

  11. Enzymes • Enzymes work in the whole digestive process, form mouth to anus. • Enzymes are organic catalysts that cause and/or speed up digestive action. • However, enzymes remain unchanged in this process. • A weak acid solution will halt enzyme action.

  12. Digestion in the Mouth • Saliva stimulates the taste nerves. • Water moistens the feed for chewing and swallowing. • Mucin lubricates the feed for swallowing. • Bicarbonate salts buffer the pH in the stomach.

  13. The Tongue • The tongue gathers feed in the mouth. • Directs the feed in the throat for swallowing. • Mixes feed.

  14. Esophagus • A tube like passage which leads from the mouth to the stomach. • Peristaltic waves send feed down the esophagus, (muscle contractions). • The cardia, located at the end of the esophagus prevents feed in the stomach from coming back into the esophagus. ( non-ruminants)

  15. Stomach • Pear shaped, muscular organ, receives feed, where it is further broken down by muscle in the stomach wall. • Gastric juices, secreted by the glands in the stomach wall, start to flow the moment masticated feed enter the stomach. • Gastric juices have about 0.2 to 0.5 percent HCl.

  16. Stomach • The wall of the stomach is lined with muscle, this muscle churns and squeezes the feed. • This action forces the liquid portion on into the small intestine. • The stomach of the horse has less muscular activity than that of other species, causing an increased tendency toward digestive disorders.

  17. Horse Stomach • The stomach of a horse is smaller, compared to other species, in relation to the size of the animal. • Therefore, it is more desirable to feed horses in smaller amounts at one time but provide more frequent feedings.

  18. Small Intestine • Duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. • This is where secretions from the pancreas, liver and intestinal walls occur. • Active digestion takes place here. • Bile, secreted in the liver is stored in the gallbladder where it is secreted into the duodenum. • Horses do not have a gallbladder, therefore, bile is secreted continuously from the liver to the duodenum.

  19. Small Intestine • The middle part of the Small Intestine is called the Jejunum. • The last part of the small intestine is called the ileum. • Nutrient absorption occurs in these two section of the small intestine.

  20. Small Intestine • Chyme is partially digested feed in the stomach. • Chyme is an acid, semi fluid, gray, pulpy mass. • Pancreatic juice is secreted by the pancreas, a small gland located between the folds of the small intestine. • Pancreatic juice contains enzymes.

  21. Small Intestine, Proteins • Proteins are further broken down into polypeptides oligopeptides, dipeptides and amino acids, eventually broken down into simple amino acids. • Starch is changed to maltose. • Fats in the feed are broken down into fatty acids glycerol and monoglycerides. • Bile helps emulsify fats.

  22. Large Intestine in Swine • The small intestine does the majority of absorption. • Cecum in swine has little or no function. • The cecum is the first part of the large intestine. • The colon is the middle and largest part of the large intestine.

  23. Large Intestine, Horses • Cecum is an important organ in horses. • The large intestine makes up approximately 60% of the total digestive tract. • Divided into cecum, large colon, small colon and rectum. • Horses can use large amounts of roughage because of the presence of bacteria in the cecum and colon. • These bacteria digest hemicelluloses and cellulose and ferment carbohydrates.

  24. Large Intestine, Horses • IMPORTANT- because the large intestine of the horse usually contains substantial quantities of ingested material, impaction occurs easily. • This impaction is the start of what horse ailment?

  25. Large Intestine • In all species, undigested, unabsorbed and indigestible material passes from the small intestine to the large. • The main function of the L intestine is to absorb water from the material passing through. • In the Horse, the small colon is the site of most of the water resorption. • Feces, material that is not absorbed or digested. • Anus, the external opening at the end of the digestive tract.

  26. Ruminant Digestive SystemMouth • Saliva of ruminants does not contain enzymes to help digest the starches. • It contains buffers which neutralize the fatty acid produced in the rumen. • The rumen contents are maintained at approximately a pH of 6-6.5. • This pH level promotes microbial growth in the rumen. • Mature cows produce about 12 gallons of saliva per day while sheep produce 2 gal.

  27. Ruminant Digestion Stomach. • The stomach of the ruminant contains four compartments: the rumen, reticulum, omasum and the abomasum. • The rumen or paunch is the first. • The reticulum or honey comb is second. • There is not a clear partition between these two compartments. • The cardia, (lower part of the esophagus is common to both compartments. • No enzymes are secreted in these tow parts.

  28. Ruminant Digestion Stomach • The third compartment is the omasum or many plies. • It constitutes 8% of the stomach. • The omasum contains strong muscles in the walls. • The fourth and last part of the ruminant stomach is the abomasum or true stomach. • The Abomasum makes up 7% of the stomach.

  29. Ruminant Digestion • Ruminants eat rapidly swallowing much of their feed without chewing. • Solid feed goes to the rumen. • The liquid part also goes into the rumen. But passes quickly to the reticulum, then through the omasum and on into the abomasum.

  30. Esophageal Groove • These two muscular folds for a passage way from the cardia, ( the end of the esophagus), to the omasum. • When closed this passage way directs feed from the esophagus directly to the omasum and when it is open the material goes into the rumen and the reticulum. • Its major function appears to be to allow milk ingest by a nursing animal to bypass fermentation in the rumen. Serves no purpose in adult ruminants.

  31. Bovine Digestive system • Identify location and function of each of the parts of the Bovine digestive system.

  32. Rumination • After the ruminant animal has filled the rumen with feed it lies down to ruminate, (chew its cud). • Cattle spend from 5-7 hours ruminating, broken up into 6-8 rumination periods. • Regurgitation is the process of forcing the feed back into the mouth for chewing. • This is done through series of muscular contractions and pressure in the rumen and reticulum.

  33. Rumination • The animal breathes in with a closed glottis. • This causes a drop in pressure in the thorax and esophagus. • The pressure in the rumen is now greater, forcing the cud into the esophagus where it is carried to the mouth, with muscular contractions. • More saliva is then mixed with the feed and it passes into the reticulum, if sufficient chewing has been done.

  34. Rumen Microorganisms • Rumen and reticulum contain millions of microorganisms called bacteria and protozoa. • Together, these tiny organisms feed on the fibrous material in the rumen. • They digest cellulose and compiles starch, synthesize protein and synthesize vitamins.

  35. Microorganisms • The three types of rumen bacteria are streptococci, lactobacilli and celluloytic bacteria. • 50-65% of the starch is digested in the rumen. • Protein in the rumen is converted to ammonia, organic acids and amino acids. • Most amino acids synthesized by the rumen, therefore, it is not necessary to supply large quantities of amino acids in the ration.

  36. Functions of the Rumen • There is continual flow of feed materials into and out of the rumen. • It acts like a large fermentation vat and account for about 50-85% of the total utilization of the digestible dry matter in the ration. • Saliva which is mixed with feed helps control the pH of the rumen. • A shift of microorganisms can result from the types of feed fed.

  37. Function of the Rumen • Feed material stays in the rumen and reticulum area from about two hours to several days. • The kind of feed influences time. Concentrates pass quicker than roughages. • Papillae line the interior wall of the rumen, they increase surface area therefore increasing the absorption ability of the rumen wall.

  38. Function of the Rumen • Bacterial action in the rumen produces large quantities (30-50 quarts per hour) of gas, mainly CO2 and CH4. • This gas must be removed or the animal will bloat. • The gas is released through eructation, (belching). • Small amounts are absorbed by the bloodstream and then eliminated through the lungs.

  39. Function of the Reticulum • Contains the same bacteria and protozoa as the rumen. • Lined with intersecting ridges that form honeycomblike projections. • Hardware that is ingest are trapped in this area and generally do not move further through the digestive system. • Feed is moved back and forth between the rumen and reticulum by regular contractions originating in the reticulum.

  40. Function of the Omasum • The omasum grinds and squeezes the feed. • Little or no digestive action. • The material leaving the omasum is 60-70 percent drier than the material entering it.

  41. Function of the Abomasum • Digestion here is much the same as it is in a monogastric animal. • Digestive juices are added to the feed and it is moistened. • There is little or no digestion of fat, cellulose or starch. • pH level of 3.5-4.0. • The feed becomes highly fluid as it passes into the small intestine.

  42. Avian Digestive Systems • Different from nonruminant and ruminant. • Feed in proventriculus are secreted by the glandular stomach and mixed with feed. The feed next moves to the gizzard. • Epithelium breaks the feed into smaller particles, further mixing of proventricular digestive juices with the feed in the gizzard.The end of the digestive system is the vent.

  43. Absorption of Nutrients • Absorption is the process of taking nutrients from the digested feed into the blood and lymph systems. • In nonruminants most absorption takes place from the small intestine with a lesser amount being absorbed from the large intestine. • In ruminants there is some absorption of nutrients through the wall of the rumen.

  44. Absorption of Nutrients • Villi are small cone-shaped projection on the wall of the small intestine. Each villi contains a network of blood capillaries through which nutrients enter the blood stream. • Protein is converted to amino acids. • Starches and sugars are converted to glucose, fructose and galactose. • Crude fiber is converted to short chained fatty acids or glucose by digestion. • These nutrients pass into the blood capillaries by osmosis through the semi permeable membranes.

  45. Absorption of Nutrients • The two methods of absorption are diffusion and active transport. • Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration. • Active transport is the movement of molecules from one area to another requiring the expenditure of energy. • Amino acids and glucose move by active transport.

  46. Metabolism • Metabolism is the sum of the chemical and physical changes continually occurring in living organisms and cells utilizing nutrients. • Anabolism is the formation and repair of body tissues. • Catabolism is the breakdown of body tissue into simpler substances.

  47. Nutrient Transport • Nutrients in the water soluble form, are primarily carried by the blood in the animals body from where they are absorbed to where they are utilized. • Nutrients are used for maintenance, oxidation provides hear for body temperature and movement. • Nutrients are also used fro growth and fattening, fetal development, production of milk and eggs, wool and mohair and work.

  48. Summary • Digestion is breaking feed down into simple substances that can be absorbed by the body. • Digestion occurs when feeds are broken up mechanically and acted upon by enzymes and other digestive juices. • Most absorption of nutrients after digestion takes place in the small intestine, although some absorption occurs in the rumen.