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Leadership. Dr. Martha Reavley Odette School of Business University of Windsor. Introduction.

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Dr. Martha Reavley

Odette School of Business

University of Windsor


A leader is bestwhen people barely know that he existsNot so good when people obey and acclaim him,Worst of all when they despise him.“Fail to honour people,They will fail to honour you;”But a good leader, who talks little,When his work is done, his aim fulfilled,They will say, “We did this ourselves.”Lao Tzu

topics of discussion
Topics of Discussion
  • Key Leadership Traits
  • Developing Team leadership Skills
  • Some Leadership Theory
  • Developing Leadership Potential
key leadership traits
Key Leadership Traits
  • Test your leadership skills
leadership traits the big 8
Leadership Traits - The Big 8
  • Self-confidence
  • Trustworthiness
  • Assertiveness
  • Emotional stability
  • Sense of Humour
  • Self-awareness and self-objectivity
  • Cognitive skills
  • Emotional Intelligence
what not to do
What not to do:
  • Have an insensitive, abrasive, or bullying style
  • Be aloof or arrogant
  • Betray personal trust
  • Have self-centred ambition
  • Fail to constructively face obvious problems
  • Micro-manage
  • Select poor subordinates
  • Think short-term
  • Don’t adapt to your boss’s different style
  • Overly depend on a “sponsor” or mentor
leadership development behaviours
Leadership Development Behaviours
  • Create opportunities for feedback
  • Take a 10% stretch
  • Learn from others
  • Keep a leadership journal
  • Have a development plan
  • Seek further education and training
transformational or charismatic leadership
Transformational or Charismatic Leadership
  • Some examples
  • Characteristics of the leader
    • vision
    • rhetorical skills
    • image and trust-building
    • personalized leadership
transformational or charismatic leadership1
Transformational or Charismatic Leadership
  • Characteristics of the Followers
    • Identification with the leader and vision
    • Heightened emotional levels
    • Willing subordination to the leader
    • Feelings of empowerment
transformational or charismatic leadership2
Transformational or Charismatic Leadership
  • Situational Characteristics
    • Crises
    • Task interdependence
developing team leadership skills
Developing Team Leadership Skills
  • Involves being highly participatory in moving teams toward desired goals
    • keep people mission driven
    • establish a sense of urgency
    • Set high performance standards
    • encourage honest criticism
    • use team symbols
    • peer evaluations
    • Avoid in-groups/out-groups
some leadership theory
Some Leadership Theory
  • The Normative Decision Model
  • The Situational Leadership Theory
  • The Contingency Model
  • The Path Goal Theory
the normative decision model
The Normative Decision Model
  • How various leader, follower and situational factors affect the degree of subordinate participation in DM
  • Levels of Participation
  • Decision Quality and Acceptance
levels of participation
Levels of Participation
  • Autocratic:
  • AI - leader makes decision using information available at the time
  • AII - leader obtains information from followers then makes decision by self - input is provided purely in response to leader’s request for info.
levels of participation1
Levels of Participation
  • Consultative:
  • CI - Leader shares problem with followers individually - gets their ideas and suggests without bringing group together. Leader then makes decision
  • CII - Leader shares problem with the group then makes the decision
levels of participation2
Levels of Participation
  • Group:
  • GII - leader shares problem with group - leader’s role is like “chairperson” - group makes decision - leader must live with what they have decided
decision quality and acceptance
Decision Quality and Acceptance
  • Quality - would the decision show up on the balance sheet? - High Q
  • Acceptance - will followers accept the decision as their own and not merely comply?
the situational leadership theory
The Situational Leadership Theory
  • Leaders Behaviours:
  • Task Behaviours - extent to which leader spells out the responsibilities of the ind or group
  • Relationship Behaviours - how much leader engages in two-way com - listening, encouraging, facilitating, clarifying, giving socio-emotional support
the situational leadership theory1
The Situational Leadership Theory
  • Maturity of the Follower:
  • Job maturity - task-relevant knowledge; KSA’s
  • Psychological maturity - self confidence; commitment; motivation relative to the task
situational leadership styles
Situational Leadership Styles
  • Participative:
    • follower maturing high (M3)
    • high relationship/low task oriented behaviours
situational leadership styles1
Situational Leadership Styles
  • Delegating:
    • follower maturity relatively high (M4)
    • Low task/low relationship oriented behaviours
situational leadership styles2
Situational Leadership Styles
  • Telling:
    • follower maturity relatively low (M1)
    • High task/low relationship oriented leader behaviours
situational leadership styles3
Situational Leadership Styles
  • Selling:
    • follower maturity relatively low (M2)
    • High task/High relationship leader behaviour
the contingency model
The Contingency Model
  • Leaders not flexible as in SLT
  • leader effectiveness is primarily determined by selecting the right kind of leader for the situation or changing the situation to suit the leaders style
leader s orientation
Leader’s Orientation
  • Determined by LPC scale
  • think of person with whom you would least like to work and describe their characteristics
  • Doesn’t change - you are either task or relationship oriented
situational characteristics
Situational Characteristics
  • Leader-member relations
  • Task structure
  • Position power
  • three aspects are combined
the contingencies
The Contingencies:
  • Task oriented leaders are more effective in wither highly favourable or highly infavourable situations
  • Relationship oriented leaders are more effective in situations of moderate favourablility
the path goal theory
The Path-Goal Theory
  • Leaders responsibility is to increase subordinate’s motivation to attain personal and organizational goals by:
    • clarifying subordinate’s path to rewards
    • increasing rewards that they value
leader behaviours
Leader Behaviours
  • Supportive
  • Directive
  • Participatory
  • Achievement oriented
    • approach depends on situation
situational contingencies
Situational Contingencies
  • Personal characteristic (KSA’s; attitudes)
  • Work environment (task structure, authority, quality of relationships in group)