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  1. Draft Internet History - Japan Aug. 24, 2003 Kazunori Konishi 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  2. Objectives (1) Recording of the Pioneers’ efforts (2) Study on technical trend for investing the resources. (3) Lessons Learned from the History for the new problems; human nature will not change, though political or technical environments might face the big changes. =>> “Grass roots activities” should be based on human nature; ex. AP* activities. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  3. Big Picture in Japan 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  4. Number of RFCs by Japanese 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  5. Over Provisioning of the bandwidth Demand in Asia is roughly 10 Gbps now. Issue: How can we bridge the gap? Healthy business of telecom carriers should be protected. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  6. Following pages are extracted from my presentation at IWS2001. <small revisions are made for this meeting> http://www.jp.apan.net/meetings/IWS2001 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  7. History & Future of Asia-Pacific Research NetworksFeb. 22, 2001Kazunori Konishi(APAN NOC Director) IWS2001 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  8. IWS2001 Contents History Issues Future This presentation focuses on the international activities, link owners and legal issues. Rough observations are described and mistakes might be found in this presentation. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  9. History of International Networks IWS2001 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  10. ALOHAnet(1980) • Lead by Professor Norman Abramson @ U-Hawaii : origin of Ethernet • Coordinated at Pacific Telecom- munications Council(PTC) • Professor Oizumi @ Tohoku-U joined the network. • NASA(KDD) donated the satellite circuit, recommended by MPT • KDD was rich, with the monopoly & high cost of the services. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  11. IWS2001 UUCPnet/Usenet(1985) • Operated by KDD Labs. on a volunteer basis. • PSTN & PSDN were used. • The partners became commercialized later on: UUnet, Eunet. • “Membership” allowed the operation over the public networks, without any license. • Limited resources were allocated, because OSI was promising in those days. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  12. IWS2001 BITNET(1985) • IBM donated the circuit & equipments, promoting SNA. • Science University of Tokyo(SUT) organized private universities. • The US power enabled to use the leased circuit without any license. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  13. WIDE(1989) • Jun Murai organized the large number of engineers at commercial companies & universities. (Murai had organized UUCP domestic network “JUNET”) • U-Hawaii’s PACCOM project organized AP regional networks. • Governments were still persistent in OSI, though they knew OSI was being defeated. (US Gov. also declared the adoption of OSI products) • Industries & Universities required the “illegal?” activities of WIDE. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  14. IWS2001 SINET(1992) • Government was forced to adopt TCP/IP in addition to OSI. • OSI was the primary protocol for a while. • The big budget enabled the large membership. • A Ministry can use the leased circuit without any license; not hierarchy among governments. • Government is not so flexible. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  15. APAN(1998) • NSF required the transit services over TransPAC link. • The owners of point-to-point links started the collaborated operations. • AP Regional networks were developed with a hub in Tokyo. • The institutions with advanced research projects are allowed to use TransPAC link. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  16. IWS2001 Issues • NGI vs. Commercial Networks • NGI: experiment, Commercial: reliability • Cost Sharing of International links • Dispute between USA vs. “Europe & Asia” • IT Strategy Headquarters vs. Governments • Do the Japanese adopt/like a hierarchical government system? • Telephone services will be taken over by the Internet. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  17. IWS2001 NGI vs. Commercial Networks • NGI • Testbed networks for high speed applications • Premature technologies should be experimented. • Should lead the deployment of the advanced technologies. • Commercial Networks • Reliable operation is critical. • Business oriented. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  18. IWS2001 Cost Sharing between USA and the other regions. • “Fair cost sharing” were widely discussed in ITU as well as in Inter-government projects; it was requested that US should pay more for the international links. • Globalization of ISP businesses seems to solve the problem. • NSF’s HPIIS seems to lessen the problem for the time being. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  19. Cost sharing in AP region Economy in AP region is quite diverse. AP countries are less organized than Europe. Cost sharing is very difficult. Possible solutions are One country pays for the whole link. Each country pays for the half link. Transit service is now available; thanks for NSF’s HPIIS. IWS2001 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  20. IWS2001 IT Strategy Headquarters vs. Governments • Can IT Strategy Headquarters be independent from the other government agencies? • Can IT Strategy Headquarters organize the network engineers such as JET in USA? • Do the government agencies accept the administration by IT Strategy Headquarters? 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  21. IWS2001 Telephone over the Internet(1) • International circuits(estimation) • Bandwidth: telephone vs. Internet = 1 : 10 • Budget: telephone vs. Internet = 10 : 1 Telephone is the value-added service: 100 times than the Internet. Cost per International bandwidth • Cable capacity will increase more than twice per year. • Cost per bandwidth might decrease 30%~ per year. Cost depends on the redundant capacity. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  22. Telephone over the Internet(2) Telephone has been replaced and will be replaced by the Internet. Fax over PSTN has been replaced by the Internet. Phone over PSTN will be gradually replaced by the Internet. The bandwidth of the Internet can be dramatically increased by saving “Phone service”. IWS2001 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  23. IWS2001 Future • Higher speed applications will be deployed. • Higher speed in both subscriber & backbone links will be required. PSTN will be a backup network of the Internet for the phone services in the near future. • Joint operation of NGI networks is critical in the current society in JP; each government agency will expand/keep the budget for NGI activities. • The bandwidth of the Internet will be dramatically increased, taking over expensive Phone services. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting

  24. IWS2001 Summary • NGI in Japan will be jointly operated by multiple government agencies: APAN2? • Cost sharing between USA and AP/EU should be discussed again for the post-HPIIS project; global ISPs will not exist in NGI. We also should show US citizens are getting the benefits from HPIIS project. • The Internet has faced & will face with legal issues. • NGI will dramatically increase the bandwidth, taking over phone services as well as reducing the cost of the circuit. 2003 Busan AP*Retreat Meeting