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University of Idaho. Fish Nutrition Research Differences and similarities with livestock nutrition and what the future holds. Part I. Ronald W. Hardy, Director Aquaculture Research Institute University of Idaho. Differences between fish and livestock Brief history of fish nutrition

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slide1

University

of Idaho

Fish Nutrition ResearchDifferences and similarities with livestock nutrition and what the future holds. Part I.

Ronald W. Hardy, Director

Aquaculture Research Institute

University of Idaho

topics to cover
Differences between fish and livestock

Brief history of fish nutrition

Brief overview of evolution of fish feed manufacturing

Today’s hot topics in fish nutrition

Replacement of marine protein and oils

Effects of nutrition on food quality and fish health

Microparticulate feeds for small fish larvae at first feeding

Opportunities presented by developments in molecular biology

Topics to cover
fish facts
Fish evolved in a very diverse environment, and 20,000 species exploit every possible niche

Currently, there are ~140 species fish being farmed

First publication on fish farming was 2500 BC

In 2005, 43% of all fish consumed globally was produced by farming

Aquaculture production growing at 9-10% annually, fastest sector of animal production

Fish Facts
differences among farmed fish species
Marine, brackish and freshwater fish

Differences in osmotic cost to maintain homeostasis

Coldwater and warmwater fish

O2 content in water, plus availability of natural food in ponds compared trout raceways or marine net-pens

metabolic rate and temperature tolerances

membrane fluidity that influences fatty acid requirements

Fish and crustaceans (shrimp, crabs)

Huge differences in mechanisms of locating feed

Shrimp are external masticators, fish gulp feed

Differences in digestive physiology

Feeds must be water-stable for slow eaters like shrimp

Differences among farmed fish species
fish vs livestock and poultry
Major differences associated with aquatic existence

Fish maintain neutral buoyancy and do not need skeletal and muscular systems to oppose gravity

Fish excrete ammonia

Fish are cold-blooded

Other differences

Fish exhibit indeterminate growth

Huge differences in digestive system among farmed fish

Fish are monogastric, but…

Gastric stomached fish (carnivores like salmon/trout)

Agastric (carp)

Fish vs. livestock and poultry
fish vs livestock and poultry differences associated with aquatic existence
Fish exist in neutral gravity, no need for heavy skeleton

Dietary calcium and phosphorus needs are lower

Energy expenditures for locomotion are lower

Fish excrete ammonia via the gills

Lower metabolic cost than excreting urea or uric acid

Higher caloric energy yield from metabolism of amino acids

Fish are cold-blooded

Upside: no need to stay warm

Downside: rates of metabolism, digestion, etc. decrease in cooler water, plus membrane fluidity must change

Fish vs. livestock and poultry:differences associated with aquatic existence
fish vs livestock and poultry differences in physiology
Many fish exhibit indeterminate growth

Growth continues after first maturation and spawning

Hypertrophy and hyperplasia (make new muscle cells)

Fish are monogastric (few herbivorous fish)

Some fish have an acid stomach

Other start with an acid stomach, then lose it as fingerlings

Some are stomach-less (agastric)

Fish vs. livestock and poultry:differences in physiology
fish vs livestock and poultry differences at start of exogenous feeding
Some fish spawn large eggs

Salmon & trout (2000-15,000 eggs/female)

Incubation requires 50-100 days depending on water temperature

First feeding fry are 200-400 mg and can be fed small, particulate feed

Many fish spawn very small eggs

Most marine species (> 1 million small eggs per female)

Incubation requires 3-7 days

First feeding fry are very small and must be fed live-feed through metamorphosis or until reach a decent size

It is very challenging to provide adequate nutrition via live feed

Right live feed at the right time

Correct nutritional content of live prey ( need PUFA enrichment)

Fish vs. livestock and poultry:differences at start of exogenous feeding
fish vs livestock and poultry other nutritional differences
Fish nutritional requirements

Ascorbic acid

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

Many minerals obtained via the water

Carnivorous species have a limited ability to utilize or metabolize starch

They evolved using protein and lipid for metabolic energy

Fish vs. livestock and poultry:other nutritional differences
efficiency of fish compared to livestock
FCR values less than 1.0 for fish

FCR values 1.6-1.8 for chickens

FCR values 8-10 for cattle

Yield of high-quality protein from salmonids is 55%

Total yield from poultry or cattle is lower and quality varies with cut

Efficiency of fish compared to livestock
brief history of fish nutrition
Prior to 1950s:

empirical feed formulation research with a variety of ingredients

Nutritional diseases quite prevalent

Little solid information on nutritional requirements

1950s and 60s:

“Golden age” due to development of semi-purified diet that allowed single nutrients to be deleted and added back (Halver’s PhD work)

Vitamin and amino acid requirements of salmon and trout were discovered

Common nutritional diseases eliminated

Brief history of fish nutrition
brief history of fish nutrition16
1970s :

Essential nutrient list expanded to other species

Refinement of nutrient requirement estimates using new approaches to assess nutritional adequacy

1980s and 90s: Aquaculture production takes off

Need for economical and efficient grow-out feeds

New species including those with larval stages

Low-pollution feeds (low-phosphorus, highly digestible)

2000 until now

Main story is alternative protein and lipid sources

Sub-plot is supplements to enhance disease resistance, provide “semi-essential nutrients” and to produce healthful products (low in POPs, high in omega-3 fatty acids)

Brief history of fish nutrition
dietary nutrient requirements pioneering fish nutrition research
Development of semi-purified diet (1953) that supported normal growth

Establishment of quantitative dietary requirements of vitamins & amino acids (1960s)

USFWS Western Fish Nutrition Laboratory

John Halver & colleagues

Pacific salmon were focus, hatchery support

all work was conducted with fry & fingerlings

Dietary nutrient requirements:Pioneering fish nutrition research
slide18
Vitamin Salmon/trout Chickens

Vitamin A 2500 1500Vitamin D 2400 200Vitamin E 50 16Vitamin K unknown 0.5

Thiamin 1 1.3

Riboflavin 7 3.6

Pyridoxine 6 3.0 Pantothenic acid 20 10

Niacin 10 11

Biotin 0.15 0.10Folic acid 2 0.25

Vitamin B12 0.01 0.003

Ascorbic acid 50 not required

Choline 800 500myo-Inositol 300 not required

*values in yellow are lower for chickens

Vitamin requirements of salmon and growing chickens (IU or mg/kg dry diet)

slide19
Ingredient Percent in diet

Vitamin-free casein 40.0

Gelatin 8.0

Dextrin 10.0

Wheat starch 10.0

Carboxymethylcellulose 1.3

Alpha-cellulose 6.0

Mineral mixture 4.0

Vitamin mixture 3.0

Amino acid mixture 2.0

Choline chloride (70% liquid) 0.3

Herring oil 17.0

Semi-purified diet for salmonids

Proximate

category Percent

Moisture 28-30

Crude protein 34

Fat 17

Ash 5

slide20
Feed semi-purified diet, adding back graded levels of single essential nutrient

measure response variables

growth, feed conversion ratio, survival (1950’s)

tissue nutrient levels, assuming that they plateau at requirement level (1950’s through today)

measure activity of enzymes that require essential nutrient as co-factor (same assumption, 1980’s)

measure excretion of nutrient or metabolites (1990’s)

Nutrigenomics (study of effects of nutrients on gene expression and single gene products in tissues)

Determining nutrient requirements in fish

slide23
Protein Ten essential amino acids

Lipids Omega-3 fatty acids (1% of diet)

Energy Supplied mainly from lipids and protein

Vitamins 15 essential vitamins

Minerals 10 minerals shown to be essential

Carotenoid Needed for viable eggs

pigments

NOTE: Other minerals are probably essential but can be obtained from rearing water

Nutrient requirements of salmonids

criteria or method used to establish a dietary vitamin requirement affects value
Response variable

absence of deficiency sign (minimum level)

tissue saturation or plasma level

enzyme activity

Statistical evaluation

broken-line (Almquist plot)

curve-fitting and models

fit curves but are they biologically relevant?

do we chose 95% or 100% response as requirement?

Real-world environmental conditions

crowding, water quality, pathogen load etc.

Criteria or method used to establish a dietary vitamin requirement affects value
slide25
Requirement* Comments

15-20 ppm Prevents deficiency signs

250-500 ppm Supports maximum wound healing activity

1000-2500 ppm Supports maximum disease resistance in laboratory challenges

>2500 ppm Maximum tissue storage levels and max. immune response

* When included in purified diet, with ideal conditions and no oxidation of vitamin C

Ascorbic acid requirements of salmonids

slide26
Macrominerals (g/kg diet) Microminerals (mg/kg diet) (trace elements)

Calcium Iron

Phosphorus* Manganese*

Sodium Copper

Potassium* Zinc*

Chlorine Cobalt

Magnesium* Selenium*

Sulfur Iodine* Molybdenum

* Required in the diet, but not always supplemented in practical feeds

Mineral requirements of fish

slide27
Synthesized products

Carophyll red

Carophyll pink

Natural products

Krill meal

Phaffia yeast

Marine algae

Crustacean waste (crab, shrimp, crayfish)

Note: astaxanthin shown to be essential nutrient for salmon to produce viable offspring

Carotenoid pigments in farmed salmon and trout feeds

nutrient requirements halver s contribution
Complete estimates of nutrient requirements only done for juvenile Pacific salmon and rainbow trout

Halver’s work never duplicated for Atlantic salmon

Dietary requirements still based on Pacific salmon work

Atlantic salmon production

>1,200,000 metric tons

~2,000,000 metric tons of salmon and trout feed per year

The nutritional information upon which this industry is based is that of Halver and his colleagues

Nutrient requirements – Halver’s contribution