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Computational Grids and the Globus Project Ian Foster Argonne National Laboratory The University of Chicago Globus Co-PI: Carl Kesselman, USC/ISI Credits Thanks to the Globus teams at ANL, USC/ISI, NCSA, and elsewhere

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computational grids and the globus project

Computational Gridsand the Globus Project

Ian Foster

Argonne National Laboratory

The University of Chicago

Globus Co-PI: Carl Kesselman, USC/ISI

credits
Credits
  • Thanks to the Globus teams at ANL, USC/ISI, NCSA, and elsewhere
    • Steve Tuecke, Gregor von Laszewski, Steve Fitzgerald, Randy Butler, Brian Toonen, and many others
  • Research supported by DARPA, DOE, NSF, NASA; equipment from Cisco Systems
overview
Overview
  • Computational grids
    • Why, what, where
  • Globus project and its research activities
    • Focus on resource management
  • U.S. Grid deployment activities
    • NASA, DOE, DISCOM
  • Application overviews
    • Focus on on-line instrumentation
  • Summary
context

nationally ...

or internationally ...

Context

“Imagine a computing & information infrastructure designed to power research & education by providing pervasive access to all significant information resources”

grid application examples
GridApplicationExamples

Online analysis of

instrument data

Teleimmersion/distance

collaboration

TransAtlantic remote

visualization/steering

Record-setting distributed

supercomputing

Parameter studies with

deadline scheduling

the grid
“The Grid”
  • Pervasive, reliable, secure, high-performance access to leading-edge computational, data, instrument, display & human resources
  • New problem-solving methodologies based on this coupling of geographically distributed resources
  • Advanced network services that enable of the above (“middleware”)
what are grids
What are “Grids”?
  • Grid infrastructures support applications that
    • Involve coordinated use of end-system resources, often in different admin domains
    • Often require high performance
    • Require enhanced services beyond those provided by today’s Internet
  • Major production infrastructures & testbeds being deployed at this moment
  • Grid R&D sponsored by DARPA Quorum, NSF PACIs, NASA IPG, NGI (DOE in particular)
creating a usable grid grid services middleware
Creating a Usable Grid :Grid Services (“Middleware”)
  • Standard grid services that
    • Provide uniform, high-level access to a wide range of resources (including networks)
    • Address interdomain issues of security, policy, etc.
    • Permit application-level management and monitoring of end-to-end performance
  • Middleware-level and higher-level APIs and tools targeted at application programmers
    • Map between application and Grid
unifying concept an integrated grid architecture
Unifying Concept:An Integrated Grid Architecture

… a rich variety of applications ...

Applns

Appln

Toolkits

Remote

data

toolkit

Async.

collab.

toolkit

Remote

sensors

toolkit

Remote

comp.

toolkit

Remote

viz

toolkit

...

Protocols, authentication, policy, resource

management, instrumentation, discovery, etc., etc.

Grid

Services

Grid

Fabric

Archives, networks, computers, display devices, etc.;

associated local services

the globus project argonne usc isi ncsa aerospace nasa ames lbnl others
The Globus Project: Argonne, USC/ISI, NCSA, Aerospace, NASA Ames, LBNL, others
  • Basic research in grid-related technologies
    • Resource management, security, adaptation, etc.
  • Development of Globus toolkit
    • Core services for grid-enabled tools & applns
  • Construction of large grid testbed: GUSTO
    • Largest grid testbed in terms of sites & apps
  • Application experiments
    • Tele-immersion, distributed computing, etc.
the globus project and the iga

Globus Toolkit

Authentication, resource

management, information,

communication, fault

detection, data access,

other services as and

when available

Deployment

Subsets of Globus

toolkit technology

deployed as

production

infrastructure

The Globus Project and the IGA

Examples: SF-Express, X-ray

source data, astrophysics,

crystallography, collaborative

design, remote quantum chem.

Ongoing: HEP & climate data,

combustion corridor, remote

Allegra, distributed AMR,

CorridorOne, HotPage, ...

Applns

… rich variety of applications ...

Collaborative efforts: e.g., data

grid, remote viz, commodity

grid, Message Passing Interface,

etc., etc., etc.

Supported partners: e.g., tele-

immersion, parameter studies,

debuggers, desktop tools, PSEs,

couplers, etc., etc., etc.

Appln

Toolkits

Remote

data

toolkit

Async.

collab.

toolkit

Remote

sensors

toolkit

Remote

comp.

toolkit

Remote

viz

toolkit

...

Research

Security,

resource mgmt,

instrumentation,

adaptivity

policy,

etc., etc.

Protocols, authentication, policy, resource

management, instrumentation, discovery, etc., etc.

Grid

Services

Grid

Fabric

Archives, networks, computers, display devices, etc.;

associated local services

globus grid services
Globus Grid Services
  • The Globus toolkit provides a range of basic Grid services
    • Security, information, fault detection, communication, resource management, ...
  • These services are simple and orthogonal
    • Can be used independently, mix and match
    • Programming model independent
  • For each there are well-defined APIs
  • Standards are used extensively
    • E.g., LDAP, GSS-API, X.509, ...
grid security infrastructure
Grid Security Infrastructure
  • Single-sign on, run anywhere [if authorized]
  • PKI, X.509 certificates
  • Identity/credential mapping at each resource
  • Allows programs to act as user for limited period: delegation of rights
single sign on via globus id

Technical Details: Grid SecurityServices Provide Single Sign-On

User

User Proxy

Site 1

Process

Process

GRAM

GRAM

GSI

GSI

Process

Process

Ticket

Process

Process

Public Key

Kerberos

Single sign-onvia “globus-id”

CREDENTIAL

Assignment of

credentials to

“user proxies”

Globus

Credential

Mutual

user-resource

authentication

Site 2

Mapping

to local ids

Authenticated

interprocess

communication

GSS-API:

multiple

low-level

mechanisms

Certificate

an example of globus services at work resource management architecture

“10 GFlops, EOS data,

20 Mb/sec -- for 20 mins”

GRAM

GRAM

GRAM

An Example of Globus Services at Work:Resource Management Architecture

Info service:

location + selection

Metacomputing

Directory

Service

Resource

Broker

“What computers?”

“What speed?”

“When available?”

“20 Mb/sec”

GRAM

Globus Resource

Allocation Managers

“50 processors + storage

from 10:20 to 10:40 pm”

Fork

LSF

EASYLL

Condor

etc.

globus and the national grid
Globus and the National Grid
  • Selected “Grid Services” are being migrated into the infrastructure
    • Grid information service
    • Grid security infrastructure
    • Grid resource management services
  • Simultaneously these and other Globus services are being applied to develop
    • Grid-enabled tools
    • Grid-enabled applications
  • An ongoing iterative refinement process
slide18

DiffServ Measurement Servers

Wisc.

Other Potential

University Participants

ANL

ESnet

Abilene

NWU

DiffServ

Policy Tools

AADS Switch

supporting

MREN PVCs

UIUC

UIC

DiffServ Enabled Router

UChicago

The Alliance National Technology Grid

EMERGE MREN/ESnet Testbed

Globus Project Grid Testbed Partnerships Include ...

NASA’s Information Power Grid

case study online instrumentation
Case Study:Online Instrumentation

Advanced Photon Source

wide-area

dissemination

desktop & VR clients with shared controls

real-time

collection

archival

storage

tomographic reconstruction

DOE X-ray source grand challenge: ANL, USC/ISI, NIST, U.Chicago

current technology focus areas
Current Technology Focus Areas
  • Advanced resource management techniques
    • GARA: Globus Arch. for Resv. & Allocation
  • High-end data-intensive applications
    • “Data Grid”
  • Interfaces to commodity technologies
    • CoG-Kit: Commodity Grid Toolkits
  • Distance visualization
    • NOVA: Network Optimized Visualization Arch.

With supporting work on info/instr., policy, accounting, authentication/authorization, etc.

gara and differentiated services
GARA and Differentiated Services

Server

Client

GARA API

Diffserv

Resource

Manager

Diffserv

Resource

Manager

the grid forum http www gridforum org
The Grid Forumhttp://www.gridforum.org
  • IETF-like community forum for discussion & definition of Grid infrastructure
  • First two meetings (June 16-18, Oct 18-20) attracted 150 people
  • 9 working groups established in security, information infrastructure, resource management, accounting, etc.
  • Next mtg: San Diego Feb/Mar 2000
  • See also European Grid Forum
    • www.egrid.org
summary globus contributions
Summary: Globus Contributions
  • Architecture that addresses inter-domain issues
  • Toolkit model for building grid-enabled tools and applications
  • Information-rich approach to adaptivity and high performance
  • New technologies for security, resource management, etc.
  • Construction of production environments and testbeds allowing realistic evaluation
summary
Summary
  • Grids require Grid services that make resources accessible and usable and Grid toolkits for application development
  • The Globus project is building essential services and partnering with tool developers
  • Widespread adoption by groups building production infrastructure
  • Significant application success stories in a range of problem classes
for more information
For More Information ...
  • Globus: www.globus.org
  • Grid Forum:

www.gridforum.org

  • Grid book

“The Grid: Blueprint for a Future Computing Infrastructure,” I. Foster & C. Kesselman (Eds), Morgan-Kaufmann, 1999

http://www.mkp.com/grids