“Uses and Grats.” • We are media consumers. • As consumers we use media to gratify certain personal needs and desires.
Our news media needs • Surveillance (“Breaking News”, weather, sports, markets, etc.) • In depth information (“investigative reporting”) • Interpretation (Editorial comment)
“Media Bias” • There is no such thing. There is no single bias that is shared by all the mass media.* • There is, however, “medium bias.” Each individual medium may well have its own unique agenda, culture, and bias. • *If there is one single value that all media organizations have in common, it is the objective of making money.
Gatekeepers • Cameraman – decides what to shoot • Writer – decides what to write • Editor – decides what to keep or drop • Graphic Artist – decides what to emphasize • Director – decides what to assign
TOTAL U.S. GATEKEEPERS If there are an average of 20 gatekeepers per organization, then there are over a million gatekeepers in these organizations.
“through a glass darkly” • Poor journalism is most often the result of: • Laziness • Incompetence • Distractions • Limited “News Hole” • Limited resources
Global Media Almanac Working draft April, 2006
ASSOCIATED PRESS ASSOCIATED PRESS MEDIA: news, photos –the largest and oldest news organization in the world, supplying news and information to over 1,700 newspapers, 5,000 radio and television outlets in 121 countries worldwide. HISTORY: The Associated Press was founded in 1848 by Horace Greely, along with David Hale, James Gordon Bennett, and ten other New York newspaper publishers. They decided pool their efforts to receive international news and to make it cheaper due to the high expenses of a telegraph. PRINCIPALS: AP is not a publicly traded company but rather is owned by 1,500 daily newspaper members who elect a board of directors. HEADQUARTERS: New York, N.Y. WEBSITE: www.ap.org FINANCIALS: N/A, but gross sales in 2003 were estimated at $559 million dollars NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: more than 3,700 employees – in 240 bureaus worldwide
Al JAZEERA Al Jazeera MEDIA: news service, sports programming, children’s programming, websites HISTORY: Launched in 1996 by the emir of Qatar PRINCIPALS: H.E. Sheik Hamad bin Thammer Al Thani, Chairman Waddah Khanfar, Managing Director Hamad Al Nuaimi, Marketing Director Satnam Matharu, International Media Relations HEADQUARTERS: Qatar WEBSITE: http://english.aljazeera.net/HomePage FINANCIALS: NA / privately held NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES:
BERTLESMANN Bertlesmann MEDIA: book publishing, television network, music publishing,radio, magazines, newspapers HISTORY: began in 1835 PRINCIPALS: the Mohn family HEADQUARTERS: Gutersloh, Germany WEBSITE: http://www.bertlesmann.com FINANCIALS: NA – privately held NET SALES $ 17 billion estimated NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: 76,266
CBS CBS MEDIA: television network HISTORY: began in 1927 HEADQUARTERS: New York, N.Y. WEBSITE: http://www.cbscorporation.com FINANCIALS: SYMBOL & MARKET: TV LATEST PRICE: $24.45 NET WORTH $ 42.0 billion NET SALES $ 22.5 billion ROI 41.6% CURRENT RATIO 1.09 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES:
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR Christian Science Monitor MEDIA: news paper, website HISTORY: began in 1908 by Mary Baker Eddy PRINCIPALS: the First Church of Christ, Scientist Steve Grey, Managing Publisher Jay Jostyn, Communication Manager HEADQUARTERS: Boston, Mass. WEBSITE: http://www.csmonitor.com FINANCIALS: NA – privately held NET SALES $ 18.2 million estimated NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: 320
FOX NEWS NETWORK Fox News Network MEDIA: television network HISTORY: Launched on October 7, 1996 PRINCIPALS: Rupert Murdock HEADQUARTERS: New York, N.Y. WEBSITE: http://www.foxnews.com FINANCIALS: SYMBOL & MARKET: TV LATEST PRICE: $17.40 NET WORTH $ 29.4 million NET SALES $ 23.8 million ROI 7.2% CURRENT RATIO 1.92 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: 38,000
GRUPO TELEVISA Grupo Televisa MEDIA: television network, tv stations, radio, film studios, cable tv, satellite tv, publishing, Internet, sports and entertainment promotions HISTORY: Founded in 1955 PRINCIPALS: the Azcarraga family HEADQUARTERS: Mexico City, Mexico WEBSITE: http://www.televisa.com FINANCIALS: SYMBOL & MARKET: TV LATEST PRICE: $74.75 NET WORTH $ 3.05 billion NET SALES $ 2.62 billion ROI 14.2% CURRENT RATIO 1.44 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: 14,100
NBC NBC MEDIA: television network, film studios HISTORY: David Sarnoff founded National Broadcasting Company in 1926. With 80% of the company now owned by General Electric through a merger in 1986, NBC is America’s largest television network and is in combined ventures with Vivendi Universal, best known for Universal Pictures and Universal Studios. PRINCIPALS: Ironically, NBC’s merger with GE brought the company back to its roots, as it became partners with a company founded by Thomas Edison. HEADQUARTERS: Rockefeller Square, New York City WEBSITE: http://www.nbc.com FINANCIALS: While individual records for NBC are not available, General Electric’s financial information provides a full description of the company as a whole, under which NBC is included: SYMBOL & MARKET: GE LATEST PRICE: $34.74 NET WORTH $ 84 billion NET SALES $151.3 billion ROI 18% CURRENT RATIO .87 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: 307,000
REUTERS Reuters MEDIA: news service, financial information services HISTORY: began in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter PRINCIPALS: the Reuters Trust HEADQUARTERS: London, England WEBSITE: http://www.reuters.com FINANCIALS: SYMBOL & MARKET: RTRSY LATEST PRICE: $40.42 NET WORTH $ 10 billion NET SALES $ 8.1 billion ROI 10.1% CURRENT RATIO .94 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: 15,000
TASS TASS MEDIA: news, photos – Russian news service; ITAR-TASS also runs a photo service, the largest in Russia, with access to photos of the latest breaking news as well as an extensive photo archive reaching as far back as the early 1900s. HISTORY: founded 1904 in St. Petersburg; The agency as it stands today was officially named ITAR-TASS in 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the proclamation of sovereignty by a democratic Russia. ITAR stands for Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. PRINCIPALS: Vitaly Ignatenko, ITAR-TASS’s Director General HEADQUARTERS: Moscow; It has over 130 bureaus throughout Russia and the world as well as contact with 80 foreign new agencies. WEBSITE: http://corp.itar-tass.com/eng/main.html FINANCIALS: n/a – private NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: Prime-TASS (the business news division) has 250 employees in Russia and throughout the world.
FLYER MEDIA FLYER MEDIA MEDIA: news paper, websites, radio, cable television HISTORY: Flyer News and Flyer Radio began in 1950’s, FlyerTV began in 1997. PRINCIPALS: University of Dayton provides facilities, faculty advisors, and staff support Students manage and operate the organizations. HEADQUARTERS: Dayton, Ohio WEBSITES: http://www.udayton.edu/~flyer-tv FINANCIALS: NA – privately held, non-profit
In-depth information needs • Is there a relationship between the global oil industry and the global war on terror? • Is it religious and cultural differences that are causing the conflict between the Mid East and the West? • Are economic issues causing the conflict? • Are technology issues causing the conflict? • Are political issues causing the conflict?
An example of in-depth questions • When an oil company buys a tanker load of crude oil from an Iraqi oil field, who is actually selling that oil? How does that income impact an Iraqi citizen? • How many Iraqi citizens have jobs connected with the drilling, storage, and shipping of crude oil? How does the pay for these jobs compare with that of other jobs in Iraq? • What percentage of the Iraqi population depend on the oil industry for their livelihood? Do certain religious or ethnic groups command most of the Iraqi oil industry jobs? • At some point – perhaps decades from now – when the crude oil industry begins to decline, what will happen to the Iraqi economy?
Technology questions • A barrel of crude oil contains approx. 42 gallons of oil. How many gallons of refined gasoline will this yield? • Other consumer products are derived from oil refining: plastics, kerosene, diesel oil, naptha, aromatics, medical bases, asphalt, etc. Where will we get these products, when the supply of crude oil is gone?