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Post-Independence / 20 th Century Long-Term Struggles. China: 1960’s-Present. Mao tried 2 major reform programs: 1. Great Leap Forward Promoted agriculture/industry by getting rid of private property (tried to get distinct ‘Chinese’ communism)

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china 1960 s present
China: 1960’s-Present
  • Mao tried 2 major reform programs:
    • 1. Great Leap Forward
      • Promoted agriculture/industry by getting rid of private property (tried to get distinct ‘Chinese’ communism)
      • Massive Failure (“Giant Step Backward”) – mismanaged quota system, bad harvests contribute to 20 million dead from starvation, etc.

2. Cultural Revolution

-Tried to further the revolution by making sure everyone was “revolutionary” enough

-Red Guards – persecuted, imprisoned, killed 7 million teachers, intellectuals, professionals, or anyone with ties to “foreigners” or the “bourgeoisie” values

Impact:? - China was depleted of its educated people, meaning it took years longer for the country to develop

post mao china
Post-Mao China
  • Deng Xiaoping – Mao’s successor
  • Led “Deng’s Revolution” – movement that moderated Mao’s strict communism and isolation by doing:
    • Oversaw the beginnings of the “modern China” we see today
    • Brought China into international markets/trading again
    • Opened China to foreign capitalists
    • Sent Chinese students to foreign universities (needed to rebuild intellectual class)
tiananmen square
Tiananmen Square
  • Thousands of Chinese students organized pro-democracy protests at Tiananmen Square – 1989
  • Influenced by pro-democracy movements at end of Cold War
  • Deng approved bloody crackdown – thousands killed/imprisoned
  • China also got back Hong Kong from Britain in 1997
china today
China Today
  • Central Question: How does China reap the benefits of the global economy and world capitalism/trade without sacrificing their Communist principles?
  • Deng clearly had to walk a fine line in that effort (opened up Chinese markets, used capitalism to bring economy back – but cracked down on democracy at Tiananmen)
india today
India Today
  • Largest democracy in the world (1 billion people)
  • Amidst problems – India has maintained free elections, critical press, etc.
  • Major leaders:
    • 1966-77; 80-94 – Indira Gandhi (Nehru’s daughter, no relation to Mohandas)
    • She led India with “Green Revolution” – program to increase agriculture yields

India’s Problems Today:



-Sectarian Violence (mainly Hindus/Muslims) – but also with the government’s crackdown on the Sikh minority in the Punjab who wanted autonomy

Indira Gandhi was assassinated – so was her son, Rajiv, who took power in 1985 and was killed in 1991.

middle east israel
Middle East – Israel
  • Israel – Became staunch US ally after they were created in 1948
  • Israel has fought many wars (fought Arab neighbors after independence, again vs. Egypt/Syria in 1967 Six Day War; and again vs. Egypt and other Arab allies in 1973 Yom Kippur War)
  • Similarities of each conflict: Israel invaded by Arab neighbors who questioned Israel’s right to exist – Israel has been aided with money and support by their biggest ally – The U.S.A.
  • Egyptian Pres. Anwar Sadat (took over in place of Nasser) negotiated peace settlements with Israel in 1970s (Sadat gets assassinated by extremists in his country)
  • Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) formed and led by Yasser Arafat to ensure the rights of Palestinian Muslims living in Israel (they remain “stateless”)
  • Arafat and Israeli leader Yitzhak Rabin spoke of more Palestinian self-rule (Rabin was also assassinated later by an extremist Israeli who didn’t support peace with the Arabs)
  • Problems continue today (UN is still working at developing a 2 state solution) – meaning that Palestinian Arabs would get their own country – but where, and would land from Israel be “given” to them?
  • Iranians are Muslim, but different from most others (Shia sect, Persian in ethnicity)
  • In 1979, Iran had a Revolution to rid the country of secularism (Religious affairs separate from politics). They wanted a return to fundamentalist Islamic values
  • Leader, at the time, was the U.S. backed Shah of Iran. U.S. liked him because he kept oil prices low and ensured Communism wouldn’t come to Iran
  • 1979 Revolution put Ayatollah Khomeini in power in Iran while the Shah was in the U.S. receiving medical treatment. When the U.S. wouldn’t send the Shah back to stand trial for the “crimes” he had committed, Iranian students took several U.S. embassy workers hostage (Iran Hostage Crisis)
  • Was an effort by Muslims to use terrorist and other un-conventional methods to exert power on a Superpower (The US)
  • This is an example of the rise of Islamism
  • Belief in the late 20th century that Islamic traditions had been in a state of decline for several years
  • Belief that secularism of society was brought on by American and European norms in society/economy
  • Anger at these societies has increased – accompanied by belief that Middle East regions have been exploited for oil resources while societies living in these countries remain poor
  • Many have shifted – with Islamism – to have a revival of Islamic values and power
  • Some have interpreted this to mean there is a mandate from Allah (God) to use violence to make changes
  • These people are convinced the Islamic world is under siege and a jihad needs to be fought to protect the Islamic world from attack
mexico in the late 20 th early 21 st centuries
Mexico in the late 20th/Early 21st Centuries
  • Mexico’s Constitution of 1917 guaranteed many aspects of land reform that was huge for the millions of landless, Mexican peasants (Remember that land reform was and continues to be the big issue in Mexico and other Latin American countries)
  • Pres. Lazaro Cardenas actually (1930s) made good on promises – redistributing land to peasants, taking away influence of foreign investors, etc.
  • But, Mexico didn’t continue reforms into 20th century with political power being held by the PRI
  • Foreign investors continue to keep loads of power, land distribution continues to be an issue
  • PRI lost power in 2000 with election of reform-minded Vicente Fox
  • Jose Calderon is the current president of Mexico
  • South America – big economy based on the cattle industry and agriculture, industry, many European migrants
  • Regionally, so far south that it has escaped the influence of American economic intervention – remained uniquely independent
  • Juan Peron became nationalist leader and hero after WWII – he stressed strong nationalism, freedom from outside intervention, industrialization, and appealed to masses of lower-class citizens. VERY POPULAR with masses
  • Peron’s wife Evita was possibly more popular. She pushed her husband’s policies while meeting the needs of the poor masses – making her very loved and admired
  • -Liberation Theology
  • -Pan African unity promoted
  • -Organization of African Unity (OAU) formed to prevent conflicts – decided to keep artificial boundaries to prevent conflicts
  • -South Africa – Black population there remained dispossessed and disfranchised
  • -Oppressive white regime denied black people basic civil/human rights
  • -White government, led by Afrikaner National Party, put forth apartheid laws that promoted “Separateness”
  • -Apartheid: promoted white supremacy in South Africa through laws (whites are minority, but get most land rights)
  • -African National Congress (ANC) – formed with leader Nelson Mandela – who was jailed in 1963
  • -Under leadership of de Klerk in late 1980s, system was abolished, Mandela released from prison, a new constitution written, elections held – Mandela becomes first black president.