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Chapter 16 - IP Protocol Addresses In this chapter, we’ll cover: TCP/IP addresses IP address hierarchy Properties of IP addresses Designing the format of IP Classes of addresses Dotted decimal notation UDM's IP addresses Internet address allocation Routers and IP addressing

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Chapter 16 - IP Protocol Addresses

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chapter 16 ip protocol addresses
Chapter 16 - IP Protocol Addresses
  • In this chapter, we’ll cover:
    • TCP/IP addresses
    • IP address hierarchy
    • Properties of IP addresses
    • Designing the format of IP Classes of addresses
    • Dotted decimal notation
    • UDM's IP addresses
    • Internet address allocation
    • Routers and IP addressing
  • Internet is a combination of individual networks, connected by Routers which can be envisioned as a single virtual network with uniform address format
  • Different technologies have different address formats; therefore, hardware addresses Can't be used
  • Every computer on network must have a unique IP address whose format must be independent of any particular hardware address format
  • Sending computer includes destination IP address in the frame which can be interpreted by any intermediate router
  • Routers examine destination IP address and forward packet to get it closer to destination
ip address hierarchy
IP Address Hierarchy

Local Address (host-id)

Net work Address (net-id)

  • IP address consists of 32 bits
  • Each IP address is divided into a prefix and a suffix
  • Prefix identifies the network to which the computer is attached which is called net-id
  • Suffix identifies a computer within that network which is called host-id
  • Address format makes routing efficient
ip address hierarchy5
IP Address Hierarchy

Local Address (host-id)

Net work Address (net-id)

  • Every network in a TCP/IP internet is assigned a unique network number by:
      • Locally - Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
      • Globally - Internet Assigned Number Authority [NIC (Net. Inf. Center)]
  • Each computer on a specific network is assigned a host address (host-id) that is unique within that network by network manager
  • Host's IP address is the combination of the prefixnetwork number (net-id) and or suffixhost address (host-id)
properties of ip addresses
Properties of IP Addresses
  • Every computer on the Internet should have a unique IP address to be able to send packets
  • IP address is the combination of network number prefix (net-id) and host address suffix (host-id)
    • Host-id, which assigned by network managers, may be reused on different networks
    • Network numbers (net-id) is unique and managed globally by a central authority, NIC
    • Address ranges are assigned in classes
  • NIC is running out of space!
designing the format of ip addresses
Designing the Format of IP Addresses
  • IP designers chose 32-bit addresses
  • Allocate some bits for prefix, some for suffix
  • Different technologies accommodate different network sizes
  • Different companies need different network sizes
    • Small prefix, large suffix: few networks, many hosts per network (Class A)
    • Large prefix, small suffix: many networks, few hosts per network (Class C)
classes of ip addresses
Classes of IP Addresses
  • Designers chose a compromise: multiple address formats that allow both large and small prefixes
  • Each format is called an address class
  • Class of an address is identified by its first four bits
classes of ip addresses9
Classes of IP Addresses
  • Class A:
  • Class B:
  • Class C:
  • Class D:
  • Class E:

bits 0 1 2 3 4 8 16 24 31


Network Address (net-id)

Local Address (host-is)


Local Address

Network Address


Local Address

Network Address


Multicast Address


Reserved For Future Use

ip addresses
IP Addresses
  • A range of IP addresses is assumed to be on a single “physical network” from the point of view of the Internet
    • Class A: 1-127.*.*.*
      • 27-1=127 networks
      • 224-1=16 Million hosts per network
    • Class B: 128-191.*.*
      • 214-1=16,065 networks
      • 216-1=65,025 hosts per network
    • Class C: 192-223.*.*.*
      • 221-1=2,015,775 networks
      • 28-1=255 hosts per network
classes of ip addresses11
Classes of IP Addresses
  • Class A, B, and C are the primary classes which are used for computer addressing
  • Class D is used for multicast which is a limited form of broadcast where packets are delivered to all members of group
  • Routers manage delivery of single packet from source to all members of multicast group
  • Class E is reserved for future use
computing the class of an address
Computing The Class of An Address

First 4 Bits Table Index

of Address (in decimal) Class

0000 0 A

0001 1 A

0010 2 A

0011 3 A

0100 4 A

0101 5 A

0110 6 A

0111 7 A

1000 8 B

1001 9 B

1010 10 B

1011 11 B

1100 12 C

1101 13 C

1110 14 D

1111 15 E

computing the class of an address13
Computing The Class of An Address
  • The class of an IP address can be computed from its address; therefore, it is called self identifying
  • The class can be extracted then calculated
    • If the combination starts with:
      • 0 bit class A
      • 10 bit class B
      • 110 bit class C
      • 111 bit class D
      • 1111 bit class E
dotted decimal notation
Dotted Decimal Notation

32-bit Binary Number Equivalent Dotted Decimal

10000001 00110100 00000110 00000000 12 . 9 . 52 . 6 . 0

11000000 00000101 00110000 00000011 192 . 5 . 48 . 3

00001010 00000010 00000000 00100101 10 . 2 . 0 . 2 . 37

10000000 00001010 00000010 00000011 128 . 10 . 2 . 3

10000000 10000000 11111111 00000000 128 . 128 . 255 . 0

  • Class A, B and C all break between prefix and suffix on byte boundary
  • Dotted decimal notation is a convention for representing 32-bit internet addresses in decimal
  • Convert each 8 bits of address into decimal value; display separated by periods (``dots'')
udm s ip addresses
UDM's IP Addresses
  • UDM has 8 Class C networks: 198.109.25.xx,… 198.109.23.xx,...
    • All hosts at UDM have 198.109.2x.xx prefix:
    • Suffix bytes are used to determine local networks and computers through subnetting
address classes
Address Classes
  • While dotted decimal makes separating network address from host address easier, determining class is not so obvious
  • Look at first dotted decimal number, and use this table:

CLASS Range of Values

A 0 through 127

B 128 through 191

C 192 through 223

D 224 through 239

E 240 through 255

networks and hosts in each class
Networks and Hosts in Each Class
  • Classing scheme does not yield equal number of networks in each class
  • Class A:
    • First bit must be 0
    • 7 remaining bits identify Class A net
    • 27-1= 127 possible class A nets

Address Bits in Max Number Bits in Max Number of

Class Prefix of Networks Suffix Hosts per Network

A 7 128 24 16777216

B 14 16384 16 65536

C 21 2087152 8 256

internet address allocation
Internet Address Allocation
  • Addresses in the Internet are not used efficiently
  • UDM uses 200-300 out of possible (8*28)
  • Large organizations may not be able to get as many addresses in the Internet as they need
  • Example: UPS needs addresses for millions of computers
  • Solution - set up private internet and allocate addresses from entire 32-bit address space
  • Select address class for each network depending on expected number of hosts
  • Assign network numbers from appropriate classes
  • Assign host suffixes to form internet addresses for all hosts

prefix 128.211


prefix 192.5.48

prefix 128.10

prefix 10

berkeley broadcast address
Berkeley Broadcast Address
  • Berkeley UNIX, which distributed by Berkeley Software Distribution, in common use
  • Berkeley broadcast uses all 0s for broadcast instead of all 1s for host suffix
  • This non-standard implementation spread with BSD UNIX
  • Many networks are designed to accept both standard & Berkeley broadcast forms
routers and ip addressing
Routers and IP Addressing
  • IP address identifies a connection between a computer & a network, not a computer
  • Router has a connection to multiple physical networks; therefore, routers have multiple IP addresses
routers and ip addressing24
Routers and IP Addressing



Token Ring


multi homed hosts
Multi-Homed Hosts



  • Hosts can also be connected to multiple networks to increase reliability and performance ( 2 or more)
  • Each interface has an address
  • Multi-homed hosts have multiple addresses
  • Used to squeeze more “network” numbers out of a given address space so you can assign IP addresses more rationally
  • Saves space in routing tables
  • Subnetting implements a second-level net/host hierarchy based on geography.
  • Results in a network topology of clusters of local networks interconnected be wide-area networks
  • outside the subnetted network , the subnet structure in invisible
  • Within the subetted network, routers must make routing decisions based on the full subnet address(network number plus subnet number)
subnet addressing
Subnet Addressing


Local Address

Network Address


Network Address



  • The local address can be further divided into local net-id and host-id on that net
  • For Class C, 8 bits 2+6 bits which allows:
    • 22=4 local nets; i.e. 4 nets share the same class
    • 26=64 hosts on each local net
  • Other Examples: 8 bits : 3+5 bits (23=8 nets & 25=32 hosts)
subnet addressing28
Subnet Addressing





horrible example of ip addressing
Horrible Example of IP addressing
  • You can see that in a network like this you will have to have a routing table entry for every single host you’ve got
  • Virtual network needs uniform addressing scheme which is independent of hardware
  • IP address is a 32-bit address; each interface gets a unique IP address
  • IP address is composed of a network address and a host address
  • Network addresses are divided into three primary classes: A, B, and C
  • Dotted decimal notation is a standard format for Internet addresses:
  • Routers have multiple addresses - one for each interface