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Chapter 11: The Roaring Twenties 1919-1929

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Chapter 11: The Roaring Twenties 1919-1929. 1925 – Scopes Trial, Harlem Renaissance 1927 – Lindbergh flies solo across ocean, first movie with sound is made 1928 – Herbert Hoover is elected president. Timeline. 1920 – Warren G. Harding elected president

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timeline
1925 – Scopes Trial, Harlem Renaissance

1927 – Lindbergh flies solo across ocean, first movie with sound is made

1928 – Herbert Hoover is elected president

Timeline
  • 1920 – Warren G. Harding elected president
  • 1923 – Calvin Coolidge becomes president
  • 1924 – Coolidge is elected, Nellie Ross is elected governor – first female
key vocabulary
Key Vocabulary
  • Warren G. Harding – elected president in 1920, he promised “a return to normalcy,” died suddenly in 1923
  • Teapot Dome Scandal – corrupt gov't officials that made money illegally and ruined Harding's presidency
  • Calvin Coolidge – took over for Harding in 1923 and was elected in 1924, he believed in laissez faire
  • Laissez faire – gov't hands off policy in business, let businesses run themselves
slide4
Isolationist – a belief that a country should stay out of other nations' affairs except in self-defense (Harding and Coolidge)
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact – a treaty signed in 1928 by fifteen countries, all promising not to make war against each other except in self-defense
  • Assembly line – a conveyor belt system to speed up the process of making an item
  • Installment buying – using a credit card, or money you don't have, to buy expensive items and paying for them in small chunks
  • Flapper – the symbol of American women in the 1920's, wore short hair, makeup, and dresses just below the knee
slide5
Prohibition - 18th amendment, passed in 1920, banned the manufacture and sale of alcohol in the U.S.
  • Al Capone – organized crime boss, gangs would compete to control bootlegging (illegal manufacture and sale of alcohol)
  • NAACP – (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) group that tried to protect African American rights
  • Marcus Garvey – started a “return to Africa” campaign to form a separate nation there
  • Fundamentalism – believed in a literal translation on the Bible and did not want evolution to be taught in schools
slide6
Ku Klux Klan – racist white group that tried to keep African Americans powerless in society
  • Jazz – music developed by African Americans in New Orleans, features horns
  • Mass media – communication that reaches a large audience, radio, TV, movies
  • Popular culture – songs, dances, fashion, slang terms like scram and ritzy
  • Harlem Renaissance – rebirth of African American culture in Harlem, NY by migrants from the South
  • Lost Generation – artists and writers who see the Roaring Twenties as a dark time
  • Expatriates – people that move away from U.S.
let s hear some jazz
Let's Hear Some Jazz!
  • While you listen to 1920s jazz, I would like you to doodle!
  • Doodling while listening to music will help you understand the music better!
  • Duke Ellington -->
business of america
Business of America
  • After WWI, Warren G. Harding promised a “return to normalcy” and to lower taxes
  • He believed in laissez faire, or gov't having their hands off of business
  • Coolidge took over after Harding died and followed an isolationist policy – staying out of other nations' affairs unless in self-defense
  • Coolidge and 15 other nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, promised no fighting
technology
Technology
  • Because the average income per house rose 35%, people had money to spend on luxury items
  • In 1920, Henry Ford produced his Model T faster and cheaper than ever because of his assembly line process
  • Ford produced one car per minute, each costing $335 – sounds cheap, but the average worker made only $716 per year
  • Installment buying became necessary – using credit cards – which led to the Depression
air age
Air Age
  • After WWI, fighter pilots bought old planes and found new uses
  • Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart made the first solo flights across the ocean in 1927 and 1928
youth and women in 1920s
Women, symbolized by the flapper, were playing sports, driving cars, going to college and even working

19th Amendment allowed women the right to vote

Youth and Women in 1920s
  • Youth became rebellious and wanted to express themselves
  • Fashion, songs, dance marathons, flagpole sitting, were all ways for youth to rebel
prohibition and organized crime
Organized crime grew to struggle for control of bootlegging (illegal sale and manufacture of alcohol)

Al Capone became one of the most notorious crime bosses in Chicago

21st Amendment repealed Prohibition

Prohibition and Organized Crime
  • Religious groups wanted to promote morality and health so they encouraged the 18th Amendment (Prohibition)
  • This banned the sale, transport, manufacture, and consumption of alcohol in the U.S.
america s changing
America's Changing
  • The Great Migration relocated a quarter of a million African Americans to the North with the hope of a better life – free of racial violence and the chance of a better job
  • The NAACP was formed to help protect the constitutional rights of African Americans
  • Life was better, but still not great, race riots were common and many African Americans were being treated unfairly
  • Marcus Garvey suggested that African Americans move to Africa to create a nation of their own
a divided society
A Divided Society
  • Many people were upset at the changes going on in society and that caused tension between the different sides – African Americans and whites, native-born and immigrants, urban and rural communities, science and religion
  • In Tennessee, a biology teacher broke the law and taught evolution, he was taken to court and found guilty but the Tennessee Supreme Court found the law unconstitutional – Scopes Trial – evolution is taught
america relaxes
America Relaxes
  • Technology allowed for more leisure time (time to relax) so people began to go see movies, go to libraries, museums, read books and magazines, listened to the radio, and driving their cars
  • Some Americans could not enjoy as much leisure time, African Americans and Hispanic Americans were limited by money and race – some events were still segragated
mass media influences pop culture
Mass Media Influences Pop Culture
  • Mass media, such as the radio and movies, is a communication that reaches large audiences
  • Once radio and movies were widely accessible, the youth began to dress like their favorite stars and listen to popular music, this is the beginnings of popular culture – whatever is “in” during a time period
  • Walt Disney, MGM, and Warner Brothers movie companies all debuted their new “talkies” and made a fortune
sports
Sports
  • Baseball became a favorite leisure activity during the 1920s
  • Yankee Stadium in New York became popular because of Babe Ruth
  • Sports like golf, tennis, swimming, and college sports were also popular
harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
  • Harlem Renaissance was a rebirth of freedoms for African Americans in New York
  • Jazz musicians, artists, and writers
  • Many African Americans became popular but only whites were allowed in most clubs
the lost generation
The Lost Generation
  • Many writers and artists saw the 1920s as a very dark time and saw no hope for the future
  • Many artists and writers were so upset they left the U.S. For France and became expatriates