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Changing absolute prices ---Inflation. What is inflation? The absolute prices of all stuffs jump up. Example: If there are only two goods, X and Y, in the economy. If the absolute prices of both goods increases by 5%, then the inflation rate is 5%. Do X’s and Y’s relative prices change?.

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changing absolute prices inflation
Changing absolute prices ---Inflation
  • What is inflation?
    • The absolute prices of all stuffs jump up.
  • Example: If there are only two goods, X and Y, in the economy. If the absolute prices of both goods increases by 5%, then
    • the inflation rate is 5%.
  • Do X’s and Y’s relative prices change?
market
Market
  • Demand
  • Supply
  • Equilibrium
    • Price
    • Quantity
  • Effects of sales tax on market equilibrium
  • Effects of subsidy on market equilibrium
demand
Demand
  • Demand is a relation between price and quantity demanded.
    • expressed by a demand function or a demand curve.
  • Note that Quantity demand is just a number, not a function.
  • Demand is very different from quantity demanded.
law of demand
Law of demand
  • When the price of a commodity goes up, people will buy less of it.
  • Demand for beef:

Q = 100 - 2P

  • Law of demand:

the slope of the demand curve is negative:

Q/P = -2 <0

76

80

84

88

94

change in demand
Change in Demand
  • Fall in demand:
    • A decision by consumers to buy a smaller quantity at each given price.
    • In other words, for each quantity, the tag price that the consumer is willing to take decreases.
  • the demand curve shifts downward.

Mad Cow Crisis

The tag price

slide6
Examples:
    • Mad cow effects
    • Tariff on beef
    • A $.10 sales tax on latté per cup (the city of Seattle, 2003 August)
using demand functions
Suppose the old demand function is:

Q=7-10P

Now the government charges a 10c/cup latte tax from buyers.

Using demand functions
  • What’s the new demand function:
  • Q=7-10(P+0.1)

Paid to

sellers

Given to

govn’t

effect of subsidy on demand
Suppose the old demand function is:

Q=7-10P

Now the government charges a 10c/cup latte subsidy from buyers.

the demand curve shifts upward and the demand function becomes

Q=7-10(P-0.1)

Effect of subsidy on demand
supply
Supply
  • Supply is a family numbers giving the quantities supplied at each possible price.
  • Supply is often expressed by a supply function or a supply curve. E.g.

Q = 100 + 2P

Remark: Quantity of supply is the amount of goods that firms will provide at a given price.

law of supply
When the price of a good goes up, the quantity supplied goes up.

Supply of beef:

Q = 100 + 3P

Law of supply:

the slope of the supply curve is positive

Q/P=3 >0

Law of supply

10 12 14 16 18

change in supply
South Pacific cruise tours

TsunamiA decrease in the number of tours that cruise companies would like to provide at any given price.

Falls in supply

Supply curve shifts to the left (I.e. shifts downward)

Change in supply

Tsunami

slide13
Example:

Tsunami

A $3000 lump-sum property tax whenever people sell their houses

the effect of excise tax on supply curve
An excise tax is a tax that paid to the government by producers.

Recall that price (P) is referred to as the tag price (now the tag price is the post-tax price because the seller adds the excise tax into the sale price).

The effect of excise tax on supply curve
using supply functions
Suppose the old supply function for latte is:

Q= 100 P

Now the government asks for 10 c latte tax per cup from sellers.

Using supply functions
  • What’s the new supply function?
  • Q= 100(P-0.1)
equilibrium
Equilibrium
  • Equilibrium point is the point where the supply and demand curves intersect.
  • The equilibrium price and quantity are derived at the point where

Quantity Demanded=Quantity of Supply

  • Remark
    • Equilibrium price always includes tax (or subsidy if any)
derive the equilibrium price and quantity
Derive the equilibrium price and quantity
  • Example

The demand curve:

Q = -200P+1000

The supply curve:

Q = 800P

What is the equilibrium price and quantity?

P=1, Q=800

applications
Applications

Demand is Q= -300P+1000.

Supply is: Q= 700P.

  • Suppose that an excise tax of $.05 /unit is imposed. What are the new demand and supply functions? What are the new equilibrium price and quantity?
  • Suppose that a $.05 sales tax is imposed. What are the new demand and supply functions? What are the new equilibrium price and quantity?

Intuition: a sales tax and an excise tax have identical effects on equilibrium.

slide19
1. Demand is Q= -300P+1000.

Supply is: Q= 700P.

Suppose that an excise tax of $.05 /unit is imposed. What are the new demand and supply functions? What are the new equilibrium price and quantity?

Solution:

The demand curve doesn’t change, while the new supply curve is Q = 700*(P-.05). To solve for equilibrium:

Quantity demanded = Quantity of supply

-300P +1000 = 700(P-.05)

Equilibrium price: P = $1.035

Equilibrium quantity: Q = 700*(1.035-.05)=689.5.

slide20
2. Demand is Q= -300P+1000.

Supply is: Q= 700P.

Suppose that an sales tax of $.05 /unit is imposed. What are the new demand and supply functions? What are the new equilibrium price and quantity?

Solution:

Quantity demanded = Quantity of supply

-300(P+0.05) +1000 = 700P. Thus P=.985

Equilibrium price: .985+.05=$1.035

Equilibrium quantity: Q = 700*.985 =689.5.

the effect of sales tax 05 on equilibrium
The sales tax shifts down the demand curve by $.05.

Equilibrium quantity falls (q-->q’).

Equilibrium price rises from $1 to $1.035 --- by less than $.05.

The effect of sales tax ($.05) on equilibrium

S

P

E’

pd =1.035

E

p =1

ps =.985

0.05

A

D

D’

q=700

q’=689.5

Q

the effect of excise tax 05 on equilibrium
Imposing an excise tax shifts down the demand curve by $.05.

Equilibrium quantity falls.

Equilibrium price rises from $1 to $1.035 ---- by less than $.05.

The effect of excise tax ($.05) on equilibrium

S’

S

P

0.05

pd=1.035

E

p =1

0.05

ps =.985

E’

D

q’=689.5

q=700

Q

a sales tax vs an excise tax
A Sales Tax vs. an Excise Tax:
  • The sales tax and the excise tax have an identical effect on equilibrium.