12.4: Taylor Series. Brook Taylor was an accomplished musician and painter. He did research in a variety of areas, but is most famous for his development of ideas regarding infinite series.
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Brook Taylor was an accomplished musician and painter. He did research in a variety of areas, but is most famous for his development of ideas regarding infinite series.
He added to mathematics a new branch now called the "calculus of finite differences", invented integration by parts, and discovered the celebrated series known as Taylor's expansion.
1685 - 1731
Greg Kelly, Hanford High School, Richland, Washington
If we make , and the first, second, third and fourth derivatives the same, then we would have a pretty good approximation.
Suppose we wanted to find a fourth degree polynomial of the form:
that approximates the behavior of
If we plot both functions, we see that near zero the functions match very well!
has the form:
(generated by f at )
(generated by f at )
If we want to center the series (and it’s graph) at some point other than zero, we get the Taylor Series:
On the TI-Nspire, the factorial symbol is b6
Rather than start from scratch, we can use the function that we already know:
There are some Maclaurin series that occur often enough that they should be memorized.
They are on your “Stuff You Must Know Cold”.
The 3rd order polynomial for is , but it is degree 2.
When referring to Taylor polynomials, we can talk about number of terms, order or degree.
This is a polynomial in 3 terms.
It is a 4th order Taylor polynomial, because it was found using the 4th derivative.
It is also a 4th degree polynomial, because x is raised to the 4th power.
The x3 term drops out when using the third derivative.
A recent AP exam required the student to know the difference between order and degree.
This is also the 2nd order polynomial.
Brackets means this is optional. If you don’t put anything the default is 0, i.e. a Maclaurin series.
finds Taylor Polynomials:
taylor (expression, variable, order [,point])
To be reminded of this notation look in the catalog. To jump to the T’s press