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PM—Propositional Model. A Computational Psycholinguistic Model of Language Comprehension Based on a Relational Analysis of Written English. Jerry T. Ball, PhD www.DoubleRTheory.com Email: Jerry@DoubleRTheory.com. PM Overview. Introduction Historical & Theoretical Basis

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Pm propositional model

PM—Propositional Model

A Computational Psycholinguistic Model of Language Comprehension Based on a Relational Analysis of Written English

Jerry T. Ball, PhD

www.DoubleRTheory.com

Email: Jerry@DoubleRTheory.com


Pm overview
PM Overview

  • Introduction

  • Historical & Theoretical Basis

  • The Representation of Propositional Descriptions

  • The Representation of Object Descriptions

  • The Processing of Propositional and Object Descriptions

  • Summary


Real World

Mental Box

Repn of Related

Ling Expressions

sense

Repn of Ling

Expression

Linguistic Expression

Linguistic

sense

Nonlinguistic

reference

Repn of

Prototype

Repn of

Instance

Object, State

Or Event

sense

Repn of

Exemplar


|obj is hitting the books|

|obj hit the nail on the head|

|I hit obj|

|I hit the term|

|he is hitting obj|

|obj likes to hit obj|

|obj hit obj|

|subj hit obj|

|hitter hit hittee|

|agent hit patient|

|subj verb obj|

|obj pred obj|

|subj predicate|

|agent pred patient|

|sentence|

|proposition|


Linguistic influences
Linguistic Influences

  • Cognitive Linguistics (Langacker; Lakoff)

  • Semantics & Cognition (Jackendoff)

  • Traditional Grammar (Jespersen; Quirk et. al)

  • Case Grammar (Fillmore)

  • Valency Grammar (Somers)

  • Functional Grammar (Dik)

  • TG & GB Theory (Chomsky)


Psychological influences
Psychological Influences

  • ACT-R (Anderson)

  • Construction-Integration Model (Kintsch)

  • Miller & Johnson-Laird

  • Mental Models (Johnson-Laird)

  • Clark & Clark; Clark & Haviland

  • CAPS (Just & Carpenter)


Artificial intelligence influences
Artificial Intelligence Influences

  • Preference Semantics (Wilks)

  • Conceptual Dependency Theory (Schank)

  • Conceptual Structures (Sowa)

  • SHRDLU (Winograd)


Propositional descriptions
Propositional Descriptions

  • Predicate

  • Predicate Modifier

  • Predicate Specifier

  • Object Argument Description

  • Propositional Argument Description

  • Propositional Modifier


Propositional forms
Propositional Forms

  • Pred(Obj)

  • Pred(Obj,Obj)

  • Pred(Obj,Obj,Obj)

  • Pred(Prophead)

  • Pred(Obj,Prop)

  • Pred(Prophead,Obj)

  • Pred(Obj,Obj,Prop)


Propositional form samples
Propositional Form Samples

  • [went(he)]

  • [kissed(he,me)]

  • [gave(he,me,it)]

  • [unfortunately([went(he)]head)]

  • [believes(he,[like(you,me)])]

  • [by([kissed(he,me)]head,it]

  • [told(he,me,[like(you,him)])]


Predicate modification
Predicate Modification

  • Pred{Predhead}(obj)

  • Pred{Predhead}(Obj, +Obj)


Predicate modification samples
Predicate Modification Samples

  • [am{sad}(I)]

  • [over{went}(he,it)]


Conjunctions
Conjunctions

  • Predconj(Prophead,Prophead)

  • Predconj(Prophead,Prophead,…)

  • Predconj{Predhead,Predhead}

  • Predconj{Predhead,Predhead,…}

  • Predconj {Pred-Modhead,Pred-Modhead}

  • Predconj{Pred-Modhead,Pred-Modhead,…}

  • Predconj{Pred-Spechead,Pred-Spechead}

  • Predconj{Pred-Spechead,Pred-Spechead,…}


Conjunction examples
Conjunction Examples

  • [and([like(I,you)],[like(you,me)])]

  • [and{hit,kicked}(he,it)]

  • [and{quickly,quietly}{went}(he)]

  • [and{is,was}{sad}(he)]


Object descriptions
Object Descriptions

  • Term

  • Function

  • Function Modifier

  • Function Specifier

  • Object Description


Object forms
Object Forms

  • Func<Termhead>  Term

  • Func<Termhead,Term>  Term

  • Func-Mod{Funchead}  Func

  • Func-Spec<Termhead>  Obj

  • Func(Objhead)  Obj

  • Func(Objhead,Obj)  Obj


Object form examples
Object Form Examples

  • <old<man>head>

  • <of<canhead,beans>>

  • very{oldhead}func

  • (the<man>head)

  • (all(the<men>head))

  • (in(the<man>head,the<park>)


Conjunctions1
Conjunctions

  • Funcconj<Termhead,Termhead>

  • Funcconj<Termhead,Termhead,…>

  • Funcconj(Objhead,Objhead)

  • Funcconj(Objhead,Objhead,…)

  • Funcconj{Funchead,Funchead}

  • Funcconj{Funchead,Funchead,…}

  • Funcconj{Func-Modhead,Func-Modhead}

  • Funcconj{Func-Modhead,Func-Modhead,…}

  • Funcconj{Func-Spechead,Func-Spechead,…}

  • Funcconj{Func-Spechead,Func-Spechead,…}


Conjunction examples1
Conjunction Examples

  • (the<and<manhead,womanhead>>)

  • (and(the<man>head,the<woman>head))

  • (the<and{red,white}<flag>head>)

  • (the<and{quickly,quietly}{flying}<bird>head>)

  • (and{this,that}<occasion>head)


Processing
Processing

  • Read Text from Left to Right

  • Identify Word

  • Activate Schemas for Word

  • Select Activated Schema

  • Integrate Activated Schema with Previously Activated Schemas

  • Read Next Word


Processing1
Processing

  • Processor Learns Effective Processing Strategies

  • Limited Backtracking (Jump back to beginning)

  • Relational Lexical Items Set Up Expectations that Drive Processing Mechanism (Lexically Driven)

  • No Separate Syntactic Analysis

  • No Top-Down Processing

  • No Overall Grammar

  • No Crucial Grammatical Unit Like Sentence


Processing2
Processing

  • the  the<T1>obj

  • boy  <boy>

  • the<T1>obj + <boy >  (the<boy>)

  • likes  likes(O1,O2)prop

  • likes(O1,O2) prop + (the<boy>)  likes(the<boy>,O2) prop

  • the  the<T2> obj

  • girl  <girl>

  • the<T2> obj + <girl>  (the<girl>)

  • likes(the<boy>,O2) prop + (the<girl>)  [likes(the<boy>,the<girl>)]


Processing an object desc
Processing an Object Desc

  • the  the<T1> obj

  • black black<Ta>term

  • robed  <robed<T2>term

  • black<Ta>term + robed<T2>term black{F1}func + robed<T2>term

  • black{F1}func + robed<T2>term black{robed}<T2>term

  • judge  <judge>

  • black{robed}<T2>term + <judge>  <black{robed}<judge>>

  • the<T1>obj + <black{robed}<judge>>  (the<black{robed}<judge>>)


Processing a prop desc
Processing a Prop Desc

  • he  (he)

  • is  is{PR1}

  • a  a<T1> obj

  • man  <man>

  • a<T1> obj + <man>  (a<man>)

  • is{PR1} + (a<man>)  is{(a<man>)pred}(O1) prop

  • is{(a<man>)pred}(O1) prop + (he)  is{(a<man>)pred}(he)


Processing a prop desc1
Processing a Prop Desc

  • he  (he)

  • stopped stopped??

  • stopped + walking  stopped{PR1} + walking(O1)

  • walking(O1) + slowly  walking(O1) + slowly{PR2}pred

  • walking(O1)prop + slowly{PR2}pred slowly{walking}(O1)prop

  • stopped{PR1} + slowly{walking}(O1)prop  stopped{slowly{walking}}(O1)prop

  • (he) + stopped{slowly{walking}}(O1)prop 

    [stopped{slowly{walking}}(he)]


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