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Implementation of UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol and CDM in Vietnam. Dr.Dao Duc Tuan Mr. Nguyen Khac Hieu National Office for Ozone Protection & Climate Change Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment. Content. Background Climate change impacts

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Implementation of UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol and CDM in Vietnam

Dr.Dao Duc Tuan

Mr. Nguyen Khac Hieu

National Office for Ozone Protection & Climate Change

Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment


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Content

  • Background

  • Climate change impacts

  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol (KP) to UNFCCC and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

  • Main activities and results of UNFCCC implementation in Vietnam

  • UNEP Project on Capacity Building for CDM


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Background

  • Greenhouse Gases (GHG) are vital because they act like a blanker around the earth to stabilize temperature. Without this natural blanket the surface average temperature of the earth would be -200C.

  • Steam, CO2, CH4, N2O are main GHGs

  • Due to industrialization to develop social-economic, anthropogenic GHG emissions are increasing significantly in the atmosphere.

  • Increase of GHG concentration in the atmosphere leads to climate change.



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CO2 in the atmosphere of some planets


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Background (Cont.)

  • Many human activities contribute to GHG emissions:

  • Burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas)

  • Exploiting mine

  • Industry activities

  • Food production activities

  • Burning and exploiting forests

  • Land use change

  • Waste

  • Due to these activities, global average temperature increased 0.60C over the last 100 years.

  • It is estimated that global temperature would increase from 1 to 3,50C.


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CO2 emissions from industrial processes


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CO2 emission from land use change


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CO2 density in the atmosphere



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Climate change impacts

  • Harmfulness of climate change impacts:

  • Human health

  • Agriculture and Forestry

  • Water resource

  • Coastal zone

  • Natural habitat zones and floras and fauna

  • Social-economic systems


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UNFCCC

  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

  • More than 150 countries signed in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

  • Including commitments of states to establish a framework for controlling and eliminating GHG emissions in order to stabilize GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system

    • Annex I Parties (economic transitions transform countries): implement commitment on reducing GHG emissions

    • Non-Annex I Parties (developing countries)


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Kyoto protocol

  • Kyoto Protocol (KP):

  • Protocol to UNFCCC, approved in Kyoto in 12/1997

  • GHG controlled by KP including: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6.

  • Commitments of reducing GHG with special rate of parties (EU: 8%, USA: 7%, Japan: 6%)

  • Condition to KP enter into force after 90 days when:

    • 55 Parties to the Convention have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

    • Annex I which ratify accounted in total for at least 55% of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990

  • To 13 November 2002: 84 countries signed, 97 countries ratified. Annex 1 Parties which ratified represent 37,4%


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CDM

  • One of the mechanisms under KP (Article 12)

  • The purpose of the CDM:

    • To assist Parties not included in Annex I in achieving sustainable development and in contributing to the ultimate objective of the Convention

    • To assist Parties included in Annex I in achieving compliance with their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3

  • In the first commitment period (2008-2012) : Annex I Parties shall reduce their overall emissions of GHG by at least 5% below 1990 levels


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Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC

  • Hydro-Meteorological Service of Vietnam (HMS) - at present belongs to Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) - is assigned by the Government as a National Authority for implementing UNFCCC and KP as well as a National Authority for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Vietnam.

  • HMS has coordinated with related Ministries, agencies to carry out climate change activities in the effort to promote implementation of UNFCCC and preparation for CDM activities in Vietnam.


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Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (Cont.)

Establishing a Climate Change Country Team and National Technical Expert Team to manage and implement projects regarding climate change issues.

  • HMS (MONRE)

  • Ministry of Planning and Investment

  • Ministry of Science & Technology

  • Ministry of Industry

  • Ministry of Transportation

  • Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

  • Ministry of Training & Education

  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs

  • Ministry of Finance

  • Ministry of Public Health

  • Ministry of Justice

  • Vietnam Union of Science and Technology Association


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Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.)

  • Vietnam has carried out the following climate change projects:

  • Asian: Study on global impacts of climate change

  • CC:TRAIN

  • “Asian Least Cost GHG Abatement Strategy” (ALGAS)

  • Vietnam coastal zone vulnerability assessment

  • Economic of GHG Limitation (Phase 1): “Formulization of methodology to assess GHG limitation “


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Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.)

6. Reduction of electricity consumption in Cement Ha Tien 2 Plant by using surplus thermal for additional generation

7. Implementation of UNFCCC in Quang Ninh Province

8. “Enabling Activities for the Preparation of Initial National Communication Related to UNFCCC”

9. “Vietnam National Strategy Study on Clean Development Mechanism” (NSS)

10. Use of biogas

11. Increasing carbon sequestration in planted forest in Vietnam through use of genetically improved species

12. Energy efficient in Public Lighting sector


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Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.)

  • Main results: National GHG Inventories (1990, 1993, 1994):

    - Energy

    - Industrial Processes

    - Agriculture

    - Land use change and Forestry

    - Waste




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Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.)

  • Develop and assess GHG mitigation options

    A/ Energy:

  • Use of renewable energies (wind, solar)

  • Energy efficiency improvement for Cooking Stoves

  • Compact Fluorescent Lamp

  • Energy efficiency improvement for old air-conditioning, fridge, engine

  • Fuel Efficiency Improvements with Lean Burn Engine in Transportation


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Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.)

B/ Forestry

  • Long-term rotation reforestation

  • Short-term rotation reforestation

  • Afforestation

  • Scatter plantation

    C/ Agriculture

  • Water management on rice fields

  • Processing animal food

  • Biogas utilization in rural areas


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Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.)

  • Vulnerability assessment and development of measures to cop with climate change

  • Raising awareness and knowledge

    - Workshops, seminars

    - Compilation of programmes, video to disseminate

  • Development of climate change project ideas to attract international supports.


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Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.)

  • Formulation and development of climate change, CDM/PCF projects portfolio

  • Improve energy efficiency in Small Medium Scale Enterprises (SME)

  • Reducing CH4 emission by managing water level on rice fields

  • Fuel switching oil to gas (Thu Duc Plant )

  • Recover CH4 from landfills (Hochiminh City, Hanoi, Haiphong City)

  • Capacity Development for CDM

  • Development of renewable energies (wind, biogas, solar, geothermal power )

  • Co-generation of electricity (Nghe An Tate & Lyle Company)

  • Establishment of Protection Forest (Central Regional)


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UNEP project on capacity development for CDM (CONT.)

  • The project has launched by UNEP with the support from Dutch Government.

  • Vietnam is one of the three countries in Asia has been selected to participate in the project.

  • The project will assist Viet Nam to take advantages to joint CDM market through establishing GHG emission reduction projects that are consistent with national sustainable development goals.


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UNEP project on capacity development for CDM (CONT.)

Expected Outcomes:

  • Define and improve a regulatory framework to support CDM activities

  • Enhance CDM capacity building and skills for related organizations

  • Identify prospective CDM projects

  • Operational information and guidelines for raising awareness and capacity building on CDM that can be applied in the project.


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UNEP project on capacity development for CDM (CONT.)

Project Preparation Phase:

  • Review national experiences on AIJ / CDM projects

  • Organize and participate in CDM national workshop with participation of main national stakeholders involved on CDM

  • Establish a country specific strategy approach in order to obtain the highest degree of political support

  • Designate an appropriate focal point agency that will coordinate national CDM activities and investments.

  • Develop a multi-year work plan for promoting nationals CDM activities and investments in Vietnam


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Conclusion (CONT.)

  • Vietnam has interested in climate change activities

  • Vietnam signed and ratified UNFCCC in 1994

  • Vietnam signed KP in 1997 and ratified it on 25 September 2002.

  • In 1994, Vietnam issued Environment Law and Decree of Government guiding implementation of environment protection law.

     These documents affirm that Vietnam would implement its commitment in International Convention on environment protection which it signed


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Conclusion (Cont.) (CONT.)

  • The UNEP Project: “Capacity Development for CDM” will contribute an important part to facilitating CDM activities and sustainable development in Vietnam in the future.