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BRACHIUM. Fascial Septa. Divide arm into anterior and posterior compartments. Medial Intermuscular Septum. From subcutaneous sheath to humerus. Separates muscles of anterior arm from medial side of triceps complex. Lateral Intermuscular Septum. From subcutaneous sheath to humerus.

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Presentation Transcript
fascial septa
Fascial Septa
  • Divide arm into anterior and posterior compartments.
medial intermuscular septum
Medial Intermuscular Septum
  • From subcutaneous sheath to humerus.
  • Separates muscles of anterior arm from medial side of triceps complex.
lateral intermuscular septum
Lateral Intermuscular Septum
  • From subcutaneous sheath to humerus.
  • Separates muscles of anterior arm from lateral side of triceps complex.
muscles
Muscles
  • Components:

Biceps brachii

Coracobrachialis

Brachialis

  • Function:

Forearm flexors

Biceps also supinates forearm

innervation
Innervation
  • Innervation and functional neurological level:

Musculocutaneous nerve

C5-6

  • Nerves passing through compartment (not innervating anterior compartment structures):

Median nerve.

Ulnar nerve:

Through proximal part of anterior compartment.

vascularization
Vascularization
  • Brachial artery
  • Basilic vein and venae comitantes
muscles1
Muscles
  • Components:

Triceps brachii.

Anconeus.

  • Function:

Forearm extensors.

Long head of triceps can extend shoulder (brachium).

Synergists in forearm supination.

innervation vascularization
Innervation/Vascularization
  • Innervation and functional neurological level:

Radial nerve

C7

  • Vascular supply to compartment:

Deep brachial artery

median nerve
Median Nerve
  • Supplies flexor muscles on the radial side of the forearm.
  • Travels with the brachial artery:

Lateral to artery in upper half of brachium.

Medial to artery in lower half of brachium.

  • Crosses cubital fossa superficially:

With brachial artery

Deep to bicipital aponeurosis

ulnar nerve
Ulnar Nerve
  • Supplies flexor muscles on the ulnar side of the forearm.
  • Starts in anterior brachial compartment:

Medial to brachial artery

Runs with superior ulnar collateral artery.

ulnar nerve1
Ulnar Nerve
  • Pierces medial intermuscular septum:

Enters posterior compartment of the brachium.

Passes around (superficial) medial epicondyle.

Passes into forearm between two heads of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.

radial nerve
Radial Nerve
  • Supplies extensor muscles in posterior compartment of brachium as well as extensor muscles of the wrist and hand.
  • Also supplies brachioradialis muscle.
  • Descends posterior to the axillary artery:

Spirals around the posterior surface of the humerus in the spiral (radial) groove.

Accompanied by deep brachial artery.

radial nerve1
Radial Nerve
  • Pierces lateral intermuscular septum distal to deltoid insertion.
  • Passes into forearm:

Between the brachialis medially and the brachioradialis laterally.

  • Divides into superficial and deep branches near lateral epicondyle.
radial nerve2
Radial Nerve
  • Branches in the axilla and upper third of the arm:

Muscular branch to long head of triceps.

Muscular branch to medial head of triceps.

Posterior brachial cutaneous nerve.

radial nerve3
Radial Nerve
  • Branches in the radial groove in middle third of arm:

Branch to lateral and medial triceps and anconeus.

Lower lateral brachial cutaneous nerve.

Posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm.

radial nerve4
Radial Nerve
  • Branches in the distal third of the arm:

Branch to brachioradialis.

Branch to extensor carpi radialis longus (brevis?)

Articular branches to elbow joint.

musculocutaneous nerve
Musculocutaneous Nerve
  • Pierces coracobrachialis in upper half or third of brachium.
  • Innervates muscles of anterior brachial compartment.
  • Pierces fascia lateral to biceps tendon:

Continues as lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.

Supplies skin on lateral forearm as far as wrist.

nerves in the brachium
Nerves in the Brachium
  • Medial brachial cutaneous nerve:

Direct branch from medial cord.

  • Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve:

Direct branch from medial cord.

cephalic vein
Cephalic Vein
  • Lateral continuation of dorsal venous arch.
  • Ascends in superficial fascia along lateral aspect of forearm and arm.
  • Passes through deltopectoral triangle.
  • Empties into axillary vein.
basilic vein
Basilic Vein
  • Medial continuation of dorsal venous arch.
  • Ascends in superficial fascia along lateral aspect of forearm and arm to middle of arm.
  • Pierces deep fascia and ascends in upper aspect of arm in deep fascia.
  • Joins venae comitantes to form axillary vein:

Usually near inferior border of teres major.

median cubital vein
Median Cubital Vein
  • Connects cephalic and basilic vein.
  • Extends diagonally across bicipital aponeurosis.
  • Receives blood from median antebrachial vein.
  • Drains blood from palmar hand.
venae comitantes
Venae Comitantes
  • Veins that parallel arteries:
  • Usually two per artery.
  • Countercurrent heat exchange.
brachial artery
Brachial Artery
  • Direct continuation of axillary artery.
  • Begins at inferior border of teres major.
  • Main branch is deep brachial artery.
  • Other branches:

Superior ulnar collateral:

To posterior ulnar recurrent.

Inferior ulnar collateral:

To anterior ulnar collateral.

relationships
Relationships
  • Radial nerve to deep brachial artery in radial (spiral groove).
  • Brachial artery to median nerve.
  • Brachial artery to bicipital aponeurosis.
  • Superior ulnar collateral artery to medial epicondyle.
relationships1
Relationships
  • Inferior ulnar collateral artery to medial epicondyle.
  • Radial collateral artery to lateral epicondyle.
  • Median cubital vein to bicipital aponeurosis.
relationships2
Relationships
  • Ulnar nerve to medial epicondyle.
  • Musculocutaneous nerve to coracobrachialis muscle.
  • Musculocutaneous nerve to biceps and brachialis muscles.
  • Lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm to the bicipital tendon.
cubital fossa boundaries
Cubital Fossa Boundaries
  • Lateral:

Brachioradialis muscle

  • Medial:

Pronator teres muscle

  • Superior base:

Line between two humeral epicondyles

  • Floor:

Supinator and brachialis muscles

cubital fossa contents
Cubital Fossa Contents
  • Lateral to medial:

Biceps Tendon

Brachial Artery

Median Nerve