anatomy unit 2 review answers n.
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  1. ANATOMYUNIT 2REVIEW ANSWERS

  2. (1) List out all of the different structures on a neuron: • Dendrites • Cell body • Axon • Axon terminal • Myelin Sheath

  3. (2) What do dendrites do on a neuron? • Receive incoming messages / impulses

  4. (3) What does the cell body do on a neuron? • Integrates & Processes incoming messages

  5. (4) What does the axon do on a neuron? • Sends outgoing messages away from cell body

  6. (5) What occurs at the axon terminals? • Outgoing message stimulates the release of neurotransmitter from the terminals • Neurotransmitter will stimulate the next impulse/effector organ

  7. (6) What is a neurotransmitter? • Chemical • Stimulates nerve impulse / Muscle Contraction

  8. (7) What is a junction? • Space between: • Neuron + neuron • Neuron + Muscle (Effector Organ)

  9. (8) What happens at a junction? • Neurotransmitter is released from one neuron + binds to next neuron / organ.

  10. (9) List the parts included in your central nervous system: • Brain • Spinal Cord

  11. (10) List out the different types of neuroglia: • Astrocytes • Oligodendrocytes • Microglia • Ependymal cells • Schwann Cells • Satellite Cells

  12. (11) What ist he function of astrocytes? • Connect neurons to capillaries… • Connect neurons to blood flow + nutrients

  13. (12) What is the function of microglia? • Phagocytize neuron debris… • Cell Waste • Bacteria

  14. (13) What is the function of oligodendrocytes? • Fatty tissue that surrounds axons • Provides insulation  Forms Myelin Sheath

  15. (14) What is the function of Schwann Cells? • Cover the oligodendrocytes • Form Myelin Sheath

  16. (15) What is the function of ependymal cells? • Found in spinal cord + brain • Circulate cerebrospinal fluid • Provide shock absorption

  17. (16) What is the function of satellite cells? • Surround cell body of neuron • Provide cushion + protection

  18. (17) What is the afferent pathway? • Sensory • Incoming • Stimulus  CNS

  19. (18) What is the efferent pathway? • Motor • Outgoing • CNS  Muscle

  20. (19) What type of tissue is a single neuron covered in? • endoneurium

  21. (20) What do you call a bundle of neurons? • fascicle

  22. (21) What type of tissue is a bundle of neurons covered in? • perineurium

  23. (22) What type of tissue is a bundle of fascicles covered in? • epineurium

  24. (23) Which type of neurons send afferent messages? • unipolar

  25. (24) Which type of neurons send efferent messages? • multipolar

  26. (25) Describe the charge distribution in a resting neuron: • More positive on the outside than inside

  27. (26) Describe the ion distribution in a resting neuron: • Sodium on outside • Potassium on inside

  28. (27) What occurs during depolarization? • REMEMBER: This is stimulated by the binding of a neurotransmitter to the neuron…. • Opening of sodium pumps • Sodium moves INTO neuron • Sodium pumps shut • Temporary balance of charges

  29. (28) What occurs during repolarization? • Opening of potassium pumps • Potassium moves OUT of neuron • Regaining of charge imbalance

  30. (29) What happens after depolarization + repolarization? • ATP (used in active transport) is used to force sodium back to the outside, and potassium back to the inside

  31. (30)What does your frontal lobe do? • Contains Broca’s Area • Speech Production • Concentration, Planning, Problem Solving • Stimulates Skeletal Muscle Movement

  32. (31) What does your occipital lobe do? • Vision

  33. (32) What does your hypothalamus do? • Sleep • Fluid-Ion Levels in blood • Heart Rate • Body Temperature

  34. (33) What does your cerebellum do? • Connects muscle movement • Allows body parts to move together smoothly

  35. (34) What does your parietal lobe do? • Interprets speech • Interprets sounds, vision, touch

  36. (35) What does your pituitary gland do? • Releases hormones

  37. (36) What does your pons do? • Respiratory Reflexes

  38. (37) What does your medulla oblongata do? • Heart Rate • Blood Pressure • Assists Pons with Respiratory Reflexes

  39. (38) What does your thalamus do? • Sensory Reception

  40. (39) What does your corpus collasum do? • Connects impulses/messages from left and right hemispheres of brain

  41. (40) Write out the nervous system pathway for an involuntary event, NOT impacted by emotion: • Stimulus • Afferent Pathway / Sensory Pathway • CNS • Efferent Pathway / Motor Pathway • Autonomic • Parasympathetic

  42. (41) Write out the nervous system pathway for an involuntary event, IMPACTED by emotion: • Stimulus • Afferent Pathway / Sensory Pathway • CNS • Efferent Pathway / Motor Pathway • Autonomic • Sympathetic

  43. (42) Write out the nervous system pathway for a voluntary event: • Conscious decision • Afferent Pathway • CNS • Efferent Pathway • Somatic

  44. (43) What is the myelin sheath? • Insulated covering of the axon • Made of oligondendrocytes + schwann cells

  45. (44) What is the purpose of the myelin sheath? • Increases nerve impulse rate down axon

  46. (45) How does the myelin sheath complete its purpose? • Covers some of sodium-potassium pumps • Ions have to literally jump down axon

  47. (46) List out some phrases which are synonymous with nerve impulse: • Message • Electrical Current • Movement of Ions down axon

  48. (47) What happens w/your Iris when you go from a DARK  LIGHT room? • Iris contracts • Pupil opening decreases • Amount of light entering eye decreases

  49. (48) What happens w/your Iris when you go from a LIGHT  DARK room? • Iris relaxes • Pupil opening enlarges • Amount of light entering eye increases

  50. (49) What is monochromacy? • Can only see in black/white (shades of gray) • No color at all!