Sustainable Building Technologies Housing for All by 2017 Presentation to Ministry of Rural Development Government of India National Institute of Rural Development Development Alternatives September 29th, 2010
Informed and empowered communities social equity SL clean & healthy environment dignified & viable income generation opportunities environmental quality economic efficiency Development Alternatives Group The Development Alternatives Group believes that the key to achieve sustainable development is thecreation of sustainable livelihoods in large numbers
Program focus The Rural Habitat Program Social Equity Access to habitat supports and services for all Sustainable homes and settlements Environmental Quality Economic Efficiency Sanitary Environment Sustainable building Habitat based livelihoods Livelihood infrastructure Develop and make integrated technical, financial and management services for habitat development available and accessible to rural community groups
The Rural Habitat Program • Focus • Support to delivery of cost effective and energy efficient building products and services for rural and peri-urban communities • Capacity building of micro-entrepreneurs and artisans. • Technical supports from the TARA Nirman Kendra • Facilitating demand creation for eco-housing and eco building products and services through social marketing, government schemes, demonstrations and micro-financing. A comprehensive model is being put in place at one geographical location - Bundelkhand region in Central India
Rural Housing and Habitat Services • Technology development and dissemination • local job creation in the rural construction sector • production and application of eco-friendly construction in rural areas • Design and construction management • enhancing quality and safety of rural housing stock • demonstrating institutional models of housing delivery at a large scale • Capacity building and awareness • creating a large pool of technical and artisanal human resource to deliver eco-friendly construction in an affordable manner • promoting ecological construction for the masses • Enabling basic need of shelter for rural communities
rural habitat: various perspectives Habitat for the poor is: • A shelter • Physical and social security • A work place • Social position • Clean and hygienic environment – stability, reduced vulnerability • A means of livelihood • A market for products and services
Quality of residential housing stock Source: NCAER, 2008 – based on census data • Pucca : Houses, the walls and roof of which are made of permanent material. • Semi-pucca: Houses in which either the walls or the roof is made of permanent material. • Katcha: Houses in which both the walls and roof are made of materials that needs to be replaced frequently. • Serviceable katcha: Temporary houses, in which the walls are made of mud, unburnt bricks or wood. • Non-serviceable katcha: Temporary houses in which the walls are made of grass, thatch, bamboo, plastic etc.
Challenges today • Economic • Affordability • Depressed local economy NCAER; 2008
Challenges today • Ecological • Resource crunch • High embodied energy materials – contributing to climate change • Trends towards energy and resource intensity and accelerated by lack of information and promotional support to eco-friendly options. • IAY Target for 11th Five year plan: • 2000 million sq.mt. of residential area to be added (BAU) in next 3 years • 2000 million metric tons of cement, 14x106 million fired bricks, 300million tones of steel and 2000 million liters of water for basic housing alone.
Rural Construction Sector - characteristics • Construction Industry – • Resource guzzling • Energy Intensive • Polluting • In-efficient- wasteful • Unable to provide value to the low-income customer • Job providing • Catalyses economic growth • Profitable economic activity even at small scales
rural housing – factors limiting delivery Economic – demand inadequacy • Low levels of income • 30% are poor - bpl • 40% are landless • 26% have less than 1 hectare of land • Unstable income streams • 30% of household income is from crops • Another 30% income is from daily wages • Another 16% from salaries
rural housing – factors limiting delivery • Distribution – viability of supply (Nationally) • Dispersed Settlements-630,000 villages home to 790 million people • 15% of rural population lives in 20,000 large villages of >5,000 population - • 63% live in villages with 1,000 to 5,000 people • 22% live in 390,000 small villages of less than 1,000 population • 55% villages connected by All Weather Roads • Materials and Technologies – inadequate supply • Packaging for production for very few technologies • Virtually nil pre-fabrication • Little (TFM) support for MSMEs in this sector • Little promotion or demonstration of new options – state engineers not trained • Building centers – fallen apart, no extension services
Indira Awas Yojna – issues and concerns • Structural and systemic issues • Land availability • Systems and efficiency of delivery • Management issues • Inappropriate targeting • Financial leakages • Performance issues • Quantity / targets • Quality of delivery.
Performance issues • Quantity / targets • Performance = fund utilization • Translation of funds into assets? • No human resource for management? • Quality of delivery • Information and knowledge about pucca construction • Adequacy of fund (access to DRI loan?) • Availability of materials? Skills? • Structural strengthening w.r.t disasters? • Ecological perspective ? • Integrated services and supports- technical, financial, social??
Situation Madhya Pradesh, example Tikamgarh • Scale of rural houseless-ness = ~ 45,000 • IAY Annual target = 3201 (1481) • Total villages ~ 1000 Villages • IAY target utilization last year = 12% • IAY target = Rs. 382.7L • Estimated housing and basic infrastructure demand annually ~ 6000L
Minimum scale (to satisfy min. houseless-ness) • ~ 10- 25,000 units annually • 10-25 families per village – 1000 GPs • Human resource - approx. 200- 500 skilled mason days and 400-1000 unskilled worker days per village • Building materials @ approx. Rs. 4 lakh per village • Approx. Rs. 3,20,000 in local area Local economy component = (70%)
Natural growth potential • 400 sft to 1.5 L • Toilet, bath • Drinking water • kitchen • Space for livestock • Space for storing grain and implements • Working shed (if required) (guidelines for rural housing in progress by the bis) • Rs. 1.0 to 1.5 L per unit; Rs. 4L – 8L per village annually • Additions and repairs, public buildings - three fold increase at least
Situation Madhya Pradesh, example Tikamgarh • Carbon and resource footprint of typical IAY = 1446MJ/m2 • Potential improvement 950 – 500MJ/m2 • Materials in a typical IAY house and improvement • Bricks = 6500(5200 – 1000 + Earth blocks / fly-ash blocks • Cement = 30 bags(18- 20 bags) • Steel= 225 kg(100kg) • Jobs per IAY house • 40 skilled masons days • 80 unskilled worker days
Technology Sustainable Habitat Activity Market Creation Capacity Building Finance Response required-looking to the future • Reduce environmental Costs • Introduce cost effective techniques • Reduce costs of delivery – decentralize supply • Build local capacities • Increase value to customer • Aggregate the customer • Introduce appropriate financing instruments / arrangements while reducing unit costs
Response required • Reach to the customer in the remote village and small town • Make materials and skills available and accessible • Seek new resources • Make construction technologies and indeed the sector – Green • Deal with housing for the poor /IAY as a priority sub-set of integrated rural housing and infrastructure
Technology solutions: for walling • Stabilized Compressed Earth Blocks • Concrete Blocks • Fly-Ash based Blocks • The Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln
Technology solutions - for roofing • Micro-Concrete Roofing tiles • Micro-Concrete Roofing tiles • Ferro-cement Roofing channels • RCC Planks and Joists • Brick Arch Panel Roofing
Other elements • RCC door and window frames • Concrete paving systems • Masonry Systems – domes, vaults, jack-arches, rat-trap bond • Water and grain storage tanks • Roof water harvesting systems • Smokeless cooking stoves
Lessons from large scale post-disaster reconstruction initiatives • Orissa – Gujarat -Pondicherry • Cluster at scale • Set up local production – initial captive market for supporting the production units • Production units designed to service the local growing market post project converting need into demand..... ..... creating sustainable livelihoods
Ashraya – building materials services bank • Ensured availability of quality products and construction services for reconstruction • Long term availability of sustainable building materials and skills • Livelihood creation for local unemployed youth • Market creation for “safe and sustainable” construction practices in coastal Orissa
The Ashraya BMSB Today Nine years after its inception, the Ashraya BMSB is: • A profit making Section 25 company • Capacity building of local building artisans • Production and supply of building materials • Habitat and infrastructure guidance to local rural families • Facilitation of habitat finance
Decentralized supply through local eco- building enterprises • Over 600 profitable enterprises • 300 million rupees worth of goods and services annually • 3600 people employed directly enabling transformation in shelter conditions
Gramin Nirman Kendra – a social enterprise • TARA Gramin Nirman Kendra; Orchha: the technology resource centre for Bundelkhand • Technology and product supply, habitat guidance, information, capacity building, project management, market and brand creation
TARA Karigar Mandal – a local habitat services delivery institution • Masons from one or neighboring village form a SHG/ CIG (6-10) • A cluster of 50 now being registered under MACS model • Artisans trained in eco- construction services – also venturing into production of blocks, tiles, door frames • Can take small construction works of IAY houses, village schools, Anganwadis etc. • Connected to DA technical support services
Support services for entrepreneurs Customized technology & business solutions for building material enterprises • Production system design • Training & consulting services • Technical support services
Eco-building solutions for customers • Design, estimation, quality management • Least impact on environment through eco-technologies • Linking customers to banks for finance • Enable service delivery through local trained masons
Integrated training - Indira Awas Yojana • A 10 day training programme on alternative construction technologies • IAY house construction as training ground • 10-12 masons trained per house, subsequently strengthen their skills IAY construction • Cost sharing- IAY grant (materials) and District Rural Development Agency [Tikamgarh (training)]
Innovative scheme of housing and habitat development –Cluster housing in Mador Madhya Pradesh
Reaching the customer • Communication and information • Village level focus group discussions, meetings • Specially designed pamphlets, wall messages, small models • radio programmes • Through masons • Through demonstrations • Now through a cement dealer network • Technical services delivery • TARAgram as a technical resource center • Trained masons as delivery agents • Simple tools for estimation, design support, manuals and guide-books
Reaching the customer • Financial services • Association with community for SHG formation, savings processes and livelihood creation • Linkage with local banks • Supports for documentation • Making small changes in bank schemes to ‘test’ out loan packages- in association with bankers • Regular follow-up for repayments
Cluster housing - Bathinda, Punjab • What • Model eco-village of 129 houses in a well laid out development • Where • Gaggar Village 40 km from Bathinda town • Customers • low-income – landless families, • Costs • Built at Rs. 470/sft. • Model • A Public-Private initiative with strengths of various partners pooled in • Can be replicated in both rural and urban areas with minor modifications.
Key messages • Make delivery viable – social housing must be seen in the perspective of the overall construction sector in rural areas • Aggregate demand for efficiency – response needs to be seen as a cluster approach- housing cooperatives? • Provide ecological and affordable options - Augmentation of supply and diversity of eco-friendly options have to be introduced • Build capacity for quality construction – train artisans, govt. engineers, supervisors, Panchayats • Link with suitable financing options – savings processes to be linked with credit repayments for housing and toilet loans • Dovetail with other schemes –TSC, IAY, Apna Ghar, NREGS for leveraging resources • Demonstrate…promote… train…support….monitor