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Beware of “psychology student’s disease”. Psychological Disorders. Anxiety Disorders. Anxiety – vague feelings of apprehension and nervousness Specific Anxiety Disorders:

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anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders
  • Anxiety – vague feelings of apprehension and nervousness

Specific Anxiety Disorders:

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)– persistent, unexplained feelings of apprehension and tenseness (must experience at least 3 symptoms of anxiety – pg. 535)
  • Panic Disorder – sudden episodes of intense, unexplained panic
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) – unwanted, repetitive thoughts and actions (obsessions – thoughts; compulsions – actions) – chart page 539
specific anxiety disorders cont
Specific Anxiety Disorders (cont.)
  • Phobia– disruptive, irrational fears
    • Agoraphobia – fear of having a panic attack in the wrong place or fear of open spaces (usually stay home)
    • Social phobia– fear of being scrutinized by others, avoid speaking up, eating out, going to parties
    • Other phobias – triskaidekaphobia (number 13), uxoriphobia (one’s wife), Santa Clautrophobia (getting stuck in chimneys), panaphobia (everything), phobophobia (fear of fear), anthophobia (flowers), trichophobia (hair), numerophobia (numbers); page 537
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder – triggered by stress; reliving a severely upsetting event in unwanted recurring memories and dreams; symptoms include: haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, depression
explanation for anxiety disorders
Explanation for Anxiety Disorders
  • Behaviorism:
    • Conditioning- can learn to associate certain things w/ anxiety-causing events from past
    • Observational Learning – children can learn fears just from watching their parents
    • Reinforcement – people gain release from anxiety by avoiding the situation/thing (reinforces that behavior)
explanation for anxiety disorders1
Explanation for Anxiety Disorders
  • Biological Factors:
    • Heredity– predispositions for disorders (identical twins raised in different families have similar phobias)
    • Brain Function – higher degree of activity in frontal lobes (planning, attention, processing emotion) of people w/ OCD; amygdala (emotions) different in people w/ phobias
    • Neurotransmitters – OCD linked to low serotonin levels (mood/arousal)

Amygdala

mood disorders
Mood Disorders
  • Major Depressive Disorder – experience at least 2 weeks of depressed moods (pg. 543) & diminished interest in activities for no apparent reason; lack of energy; sleep disturbances; possible suicide risk
  • Bipolar Disorder –

alternate between major

depression and mania

(unrealistically optimistic,

wildly hyper, agitated)

Vincent van Gogh

Mark Twain

explanations for mood disorders
Explanations for Mood Disorders
  • Social-Cognitive Factors:
    • Learned Helplessness – can produce depression (negative thoughts) & self-fulfilling prophesies
    • Attributions (Explanatory Style) – depressed people are more likely explain bad events as stable (lasting forever), global (affects everything), internal (my fault) – attributions lead to hopelessness & depression
    • Culture – depression less common in collectivist cultures – social supports available, feel less responsible for bad events
explanations for mood disorders1
Explanations for Mood Disorders
  • Biological Factors:
    • Heredity – Major Depressive Disorder: identical twins - if one has, other has 50 % chance of developing it; only 20% for fraternal twins; Bipolar (identical twins: 70% chance)
    • Brain Function – Major Depressive Disorder: brain is less active during depression (esp. frontal lobes that are active for positive emotions) but more active in manic states
    • Neurotransmitters – Major Depressive Disorder connected w/ low levels of serotonin, dopamine, & norepinephrine
dissociative disorders general information
Dissociative Disorders: General Information
  • dissociate – to separate or divide
  • Breakdown in a person’s normal conscious experience (loss of memory or identity)
  • Believed by some to be an attempt to escape from part of self that one fears (reduce anxiety)
dissociative disorders
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative amnesia – memory loss (including basic knowledge of self) as a reaction to specific, stressful events (basically amnesia with no physical cause)
  • Dissociative fugue – extended form of dissociative amnesia; loss of one’s identity is accompanied by travel to a new location
  • Dissociative identity disorder – person is said to exhibit two or more distinct and alternating personalities that take control at different times; usually suffered sever physical, psychological, or sexual abuse as a child; existence is controversial
dissociative disorders debate
Dissociative Disorders Debate
  • Evidence for: distinct brain states associated w/ different personalities, changes in eye-muscle balance, eye color, scars, handedness, and vision
  • Evidence against: virtually nonexistent outside North America
did quick write
DID Quick Write
  • After watching the documentary, what do you think about the dissociate disorders debate (especially surrounding DID) now?
  • Do you think it is a real disorder or are these people misdiagnosed and under the influence of a persuasive therapist?
  • Explain how you came to your conclusion.
schizophrenia general information
Schizophrenia:General Information
  • Not one disorder
  • “Schiz” – break from reality (psychosis)
  • Inappropriate behaviors & emotions
  • word salad – nonsense talks
  • Hallucinations(false perceptions) – most often auditory, can be visual or tactile
  • Delusions (false beliefs) of:
    • grandeur – you are more

important than you really are

    • persecution – people are out

to get you

    • sin or guilt – being responsible for some misfortune
    • influence– being controlled by outside forces “devil”
schizophrenia disorders
Schizophrenia Disorders
  • Paranoid schizophrenia – delusions , particularly grandeur & persecution; auditory & other hallucinations often support the delusions
  • Catatonic schizophrenia – variations in voluntary movement; alternates between two phases: excitement and stupor (flat emotions, appear to be in a daze & waxy flexibility)
  • Disorganized schizophrenia – bizarre behavior, delusions, and hallucinations; visibly disturbed (often described as “crazy”)
  • Undifferentiated schizophrenia – symptoms that are disturbed but are not clearly consistent with other types
schizophrenia explanations
Schizophrenia Explanations

Biological Factors:

  • Genetics:
    • predisposition – higher rates for people w/ sibling or parent (1 in 10) who has it (1 in 100 in general pop); 1 in 2 if identical twin has it
  • Brain Structure:
    • small amounts of brain tissue & larger fluid-filled spaces
    • thalamus (routes sensory memory) is smaller
  • Brain Function:
    • less activity in frontal lobes
    • 6x normal number of receptor sites for dopamine
  • Prenatal Viruses:
    • viral infection during middle of pregnancy (pg. 565)
schizophrenia explanations1
Schizophrenia Explanations

Psychological Factors:

  • Stress & disturbed family communications–may contribute to the development of schizophrenia (for those have a predisposition)
personality disorders general information
Personality Disorders:General Information
  • Lasting, rigid patterns of behavior that seriously impair one’s social functioning
  • Usually evident by adolescence
  • The person often does not recognize the problem exists
personality disorders related to anxiety
Personality Disorders(related to anxiety)
  • Avoidant personalitydisorder – sensitive about being rejected; personal relationships difficult
  • Dependent personality disorder – behave in clingy, submissive ways & display a strong need to have others take care of them
personality disorders odd or eccentric behaviors
Personality Disorders(odd or eccentric behaviors)
  • Paranoid personality disorder – shows deep distrust of other people; suspiciousness gets in the way of personal relationships
  • Schizoid personality disorder – detached from social relationships; hermits; avoid intimate interactions with others
personality disorders dramatic or impulsive behaviors
Personality Disorders(dramatic or impulsive behaviors)
  • Borderline personality disorder – instability of emotions, self-image, behavior, and relationships
  • Antisocial personality disorder – (also known as psychopathic or sociopathic) no concern for the rights or feelings of other people; willing to engage in criminal behavior & shows no remorse; occurs more often in males & develops in adolescence ; often charming & clever; difficult to treat
ad