Stretching Exercises. Mazyad Alotaibi. Mobility and Flexibility of soft tissues (muscles, tendons, fascia, joint capsule, and skins) surrounding the joint along with adequate joint mobility, are necessary for normal ROM.
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Mobility and Flexibility of soft tissues (muscles, tendons, fascia, joint capsule, and skins) surrounding the joint along with adequate joint mobility, are necessary for normal ROM.
It is the degree to which an active muscle contraction moves the a body segment through the available ROM of the joint.
It depends on:
It is the degree to which a joint can be passively moved through the available ROM.
It depends on:
- extensibility of muscles and connective tissues (soft tissues ) that crosses and surrounding a joint.
1- Hypo-mobility: Refers to decreased mobility or restricted motion.
2- Hyper-mobility: Refers to increased mobility
1- Joint structure
3- The Elasticity
1- Prolonged Immobilization due to:
A. Extrinsic factors
* casts and splint
* skeletal traction
B. Intrinsic factors
* joint inflammation &stiffness
* skin &muscle disorders
* bony block
* vascular disorders
2- Sedentary lifestyle due to bed rest, work environment
3- Muscle imbalance, paralysis or tone abnormality
4- Postural malalignment which may be
e.g. Scoliosis, Kyphosis
1- Passive stretching
2- Active (Neuromuscular) Inhibition stretching.
3- Self stretching
4- Ballistic stretching.
C-Cyclic (Intermittent) stretch*A short duration stretch force, repeatedly but gradually applied, released, and then reapplied using mechanical device.*Each cycle of stretch is held between 5-10 seconds at the end-range, which is applied gradually at a controlled manner and at a relatively low intensity. These cyclic stretching is applied for many repetitions in each single treatment session.*This type of stretching showed that it is more effective and comfortable than a prolonged static stretch.
For example; where you assume a position and then hold it there with no assistance other than using the strength of agonist muscles. E.g., bringing your leg up and then holding it there without anything, other than your leg muscles itself, to keep the leg in that extended position. The tension of the agonists in an active stretch helps to relax the muscles being stretched (antagonists) by reciprocal inhibition. Active stretches are hold and maintained for 10 to 15 seconds.
1- Contract-relax (Hold- relax).
2- Contract-relax- contract (Hold- relax with agonist contraction).
3- Agonist contraction.
1- Regain normal range of motion of joints and mobility of soft tissue that surrounding that joint.
2- Prevent irreversible contractures.
3- Increase the general flexibility of muscle and soft tissues before vigorous strengthening exercises.
4- Minimize and prevent the risk of musculo-tendinous injuries related to specific physical activities and sports.
1- Limited range of motion due to contractures, adhesions and scar tissue formation leading to shortening of muscles, ligaments, connective tissue and skin.
2- When there are structural (skeletal) deformities as a result of limitation.
3- Whenever contracture interfere with activities of daily living (ADL).
4- When there is muscle imbalance (muscle weakness and opposing tissue tightness). Tight muscle must be stretched first before strength of weak muscle.
5- As part o a total fitness program.
6- Prior to and after vigorous exercise to minimize postexercise muscle soreness.
1- Presence of bony block that limits joint motion.
2- Recent fracture.
3- Cases of acute inflammation or infection (presence of heat swelling around the joint).
4- Presence of acute sharp pain with joint movement or muscle elongation.
5- in case of hematoma and hypermobility.
The Rotator Cuff: the Teres Minor, the Infraspinatus, the Supraspinatus and the Subscapularis.
place your palm flat on the wall, keep your weight in your heels, and lean the whole body forward. Use the hand on the wall as your anchor, and feel the stretch along the front of the chest and armpit.